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    信用卡的歷史起源

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期: 2019年7月27日

    騰訊課堂 NEXT 學院

    最近,我讀到一篇文章,介紹信用卡的來歷,講得非常清楚,既增長金融知識,又富有趣味。

    下面就是我整理的信用卡的歷史。

    1、

    20世紀早期,商品經濟發展迅速,各種產品極大豐富。

    2、

    最大的問題是,大部分人買不起這么多新產品。

    3、

    商家于是發明了分期付款。比如,購買汽車時,你不用一次付款,可以分12個月支付。這樣就促進了銷售。

    分期付款的本質是,商家對消費者進行短期貸款。

    4、

    分期付款雖然促進了銷售,但是對商家很麻煩,必須定期向消費者收款,還要承擔消費者違約的風險。會計也因此變復雜了,必須安排專門的員工管理分期帳務。

    商家還必須進行顧客調查,判斷哪些消費者具有分期付款資格,這也相當麻煩。

    5、

    1951年,一位商人發起了一個消費者互助組織 Diners Club,只要加入,都可以拿到一張會員卡,可以在會員商店憑卡消費。

    對于商家來說,這種卡省掉了顧客調查的步驟,每月只需跟 Diners Club 結賬,不需要跟每個顧客結賬,也沒有消費者違約的風險。對于消費者來說,只要一張卡,就能在所有會員商店"先買后付"和分期付款,不用每家店都登記個人身份。

    由于雙方都方便,這張卡很受歡迎,12個月內,發展了42,000名會員,并被330家商家接受。

    6、

    1958年,加州的美國銀行(Bank of America)決定借鑒 Diners Club,發行自己的會員卡 BankAmericard。

    7、

    BankAmericard 的最大創新,就是它允許消費者推遲還款,可以日后再還,但必須支付高額利息。相比之下,Diners Club 要求會員當月必須結清所有欠款。這種設計讓會員卡變成了有利可圖的小額高息貸款業務,它成了美國第一張信用卡。

    一年之內,該卡擴展到加州主要城市,由于缺乏經驗和風險控制,出現了大量消費者違約,最高時22%的消費者沒有支付欠款。美國銀行第一年的損失,達到2000萬美元(約為今天的1.7億美元)。

    8、

    三年之后,該卡終于盈利,并在60年代中期發展成獲利豐厚的業務。消費者日益接受這種卡,并提出了一個新的要求:希望在全國范圍內使用該卡,而不是只在加州。

    這讓美國銀行感到非常頭痛,因為1930年代大蕭條時,國會通過了一條法律,規定銀行只能在一個州營業,不能跨州開展業務。這是因為美國的銀行都是私人的,曾有很多小銀行高息招攬異地存款,一旦倒閉在全國范圍引起恐慌和擠兌,因此規定銀行不能跨州,由州政府進行監管。

    9、

    1966年,美國銀行終于想出了擴展到全國的對策。它決定成立一個聯盟,加入的銀行都能發行 BankAmericard,并且發展商戶,每個月跟美國銀行進行結算,這樣就實現了跨行消費。不管何地,消費者只要看到貼著 BankAmericard 標志的商店,就可以進去刷卡消費。

    由此帶來的問題是,A 銀行的持卡人在 B 銀行的商戶刷卡,B 銀行并不了解該持卡人的實際狀況,但需要為他墊款,這是有風險的。另外,不同銀行之間的互相結算越來越復雜,效率急劇下降。

    10、

    1968年10月,美國銀行召集所有成員行開會,討論怎么解決上面的問題。最后決定成立一家獨立的公司,專門負責銀行間的信用卡業務。所有成員行發行的都是該公司的卡,且只與該公司進行結算,但每家銀行可以用自己的名義發展持卡人和商家。

    這家信用卡公司最初叫 National BankAmericard Inc.,1976年改名為 VISA,這就是 VISA 卡的來歷。

    11、

    美國銀行發明了信用卡,并主導了早期的全國信用卡業務,加入聯盟的銀行都要向它付費。那些不愿付費的銀行,就開始獨立發展自己的信用卡。

    1969年,美國銀行以外的這些銀行決定聯合起來,成立自己的卡組織 Master ,這就是 Master 卡的來歷。

    (完)

    留言(9條)

    通俗易懂,對信用卡的來歷也有了了解

    我一直很好奇信用卡對銀行的好處是什么????

    引用nearly2的發言:

    我一直很好奇信用卡對銀行的好處是什么????


    分期、逾期的費用,取現的費用,客戶對銀行的附帶效益,至少有這三塊吧

    引用nearly2的發言:

    我一直很好奇信用卡對銀行的好處是什么????

    按交易額收取手續費呀,國內信用卡刷卡費率0.6%哦

    信用卡可賺錢了 走在馬路上就會遇到一寫職員推銷他們的信用卡

    我注意到一個信息,美國銀行只允許在一個州營業。這說明我們理解的自由主義,市場等原則是不完備的。美國的自由主義和市場其實有很多限制。

    我一直很好奇信用卡對銀行的好處是什么????

    引用陳賽榕的發言:

    我一直很好奇信用卡對銀行的好處是什么????

    1.客戶使用信用卡消費銀行向商家收取手續費。

    2.信用卡分期還款實際上是向客戶提供了貸款,并且利率算下來相當高。(不是所有人都是在免息期內全額還款的,特別是有些人為了資金周轉,N張信用卡分期)。

    3.信用卡逾期費用,很多人都被坑過的,忘記還款,超了一天并不是算你天的利息,從你刷卡那天算起這個費用也不少的,當基數大了非常可觀。

    4.信用卡取現手續費,客戶應急需要現金時可取現一定金額,但手續費不能少。

    5.獲取了更多客戶信息(包括消費習慣等),增加了觸達客戶的能力,可以通過各種渠道向客戶推送銀行的其他產品和服務。

    網絡支付興起之后,信用卡的很多使用場景應該都被替代了吧。實體卡除了身份象征和收集樂趣外,我很難想象有什么價值了...

    我要發表看法

    «-必填

    «-必填,不公開

    «-我信任你,不會填寫廣告鏈接

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