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    比爾·蓋茨和理查德·斯托曼

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期:2005年3月31日

    比爾·蓋茨,微軟公司的創始人,軟件版權制度的受益者,世界頭號富翁。

    理查德·斯托曼,自由軟件基金會的創始人,自由軟件運動的領袖。

    他們兩個人,一個疾呼保護版權,打擊盜版;另一個提倡自由復制,源碼共享。他們是軟件世界的兩極,針鋒相對,一個代表金錢,另一個代表自由。

    但是,他們的人生又是如此相似。兩人都是程序員,年齡相仿(斯托曼比蓋茨大兩歲),都在大城市出生和長大,都進了哈佛大學。到底是什么原因,使他們選擇了不同的信念,走上了各自的人生道路?

    歷史上,計算機工業先有硬件,再有軟件。最早的軟件都是硬件廠商編寫,跟隨硬件一起發售的。通常,這些軟件本身都是免費的,代碼可以被共享。但是,上個世紀70年代,隨著硬件平臺的成熟,對軟件的需求越來越大,軟件工業開始獨立出來了。種種保護軟件、對其收費的措施也開始出現了。

    1976年,比爾·蓋茨21歲,兩年前剛剛從哈佛大學退學開始創業。他為 MITS Altair 小型計算機,開發一種可以運行在的 BASIC 語言解釋器。他靠出售這種解釋器獲取收入,但是很快發現,計算機愛好者們正在免費共享他的作品。于是,他發表了《致計算機愛好者的公開信》,譴責這種做法:

    “大多數地計算機愛好者心里一定清楚,你們當中地許多人都盜竊別人的軟件。硬件是一定要付錢的,而軟件卻成了要共享的東西。有誰會在乎編寫軟件的人是不是得到了應有的報酬呢?”

    他說,這種盜版行為的后果只會阻礙大家“去編寫好的軟件”。

    “有誰肯去做一無所獲的技術工作?又有哪一位計算機愛好者愿意投入三年的工作量用于編程、糾錯、撰寫產品文檔,最后卻免費發布其產品?”

    后來,他提倡的軟件版權制度獲得勝利。微軟公司成了巨無霸,他本人成了億萬富翁。

    但是,并不是每一個人都認同這種模式。程序員不再能自由獲取代碼,讓很多人感到非常無奈。更有人認為這是一種阻礙社會進步、禁錮思想、抑制創造的犯罪,從而立志要反抗它。理查德·斯托曼就是這樣的人。

    他1953年出生于紐約,比蓋茨大了2歲。1970年進入哈佛大學,1974年以優異成績畢業于物理學專業。(1974年也是蓋茨從哈佛大學退學的那一年。)

    大學期間,斯托曼為麻省理工學院的人工智能實驗室工作,當程序員。畢業以后,就繼續留在那里。但是,有一家軟件公司買走了他們使用的軟件的版權,挖走了計算中心的程序員,最后只剩下了斯托曼和另一個人,他們無事可干。

    因為這件事,斯托曼決心發起自由軟件運動,提供開放源碼的軟件,讓所有人自由使用。把使用軟件的自由還給程序員。

    最初,他幾乎是一個人與整個業界對抗。他既無錢也無權,唯一有的就是理想。他知道自己的目標是一個不可能完成的任務,需要極度的投入和犧牲,但這可能也正是它的魅力所在。“我沒有把握完成這項工作,”他回憶道,“但是對我來說,知道是否能完成這項工作并不重要。關鍵在于,我已經開始行動了。”

    他先寫了最初的幾個軟件,免費提供他人使用。1984年1月,自由軟件基金會成立了。說是基金會,實際上根本沒錢。斯托曼本人睡在計算中心的辦公室里,當時他根本沒有把握自己能獲得收入。“關鍵在于”,他說,“我已經下定決心要干這件事了,那時候沒有什么能夠阻止我”。

    1985年,自由軟件基金會發布了《自由軟件通用許可證(GPL)》。這個許可證開頭第一句這樣寫道:

    “大多數軟件的許可證,設計用來剝奪你分發和修改它們的自由。GPL 許可證與此恰恰相反,它就是為了保護你分發和修改自由軟件的自由,確保這些軟件對所有用戶都是自由的。”

    GPL 許可證允許你做所有的事情,除了限制別人的自由。任何采用它的軟件就是自由軟件。

    自由軟件這個概念提出以后,在世界范圍內引起了震動。越來越多的程序員加入。以 Linux 為代表的一個完整的操作系統已經形成,在性能上完全可以替代、甚至超過了微軟的 Windows 系統。這證明志愿者出于興趣和理想的無償勞動,也完全可以做出最復雜的、質量第一流的工作。

    蓋茨不是說了嗎,“有誰肯去做一無所獲的技術工作?又有哪一位計算機愛好者愿意投入三年的工作量用于編程、糾錯、撰寫產品文檔,最后卻免費發布其產品?”現在,他應該知道他錯了,這樣的人是存在的。自由軟件運動至少證明了一點,在和金錢的較量中,熱愛自由的人們不一定會輸。

    雖然自由軟件基金會已經發展壯大,斯托曼依然過著簡樸的生活。他沒有汽車,住在租來的房子里,也沒有結婚沒有孩子,因為他覺得那樣會變成掙錢的奴隸。他說,自由軟件運動的目的,就是使得人們可以在不接受其他什么人統治的前提下,使用計算機,“如果我一直在開發專有版權的軟件,我就是在把自己的人生用來建造囚禁他人的監獄。”

    只要金錢的因素還存在一天,自由軟件和專有軟件的對峙就將存在下去。但是,我深信,在不久的將來自由軟件就會出現在每一臺電腦上。正如英國 IT 作家 Glyn Moody 所說:

    “自由軟件不僅僅是關于軟件代碼的,它們也與自由、分享有關,與社會有關。它們與創造有關,與美有關。這些代碼深處寄托著我們最美好的心愿以及對最丑惡的東西的反抗,它將和人們的恒心共久長。”

    說明:本文是《天才萊納斯:Linux傳奇》(Glyn Moody 著,機械工業出版社)一書的讀后感。本文的引語都直接引自該書。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:41:55

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