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    進步與貧困

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期:2005年4月7日

    19世紀末,美國出現了旨在改良社會的進步主義運動。各種文獻都提到,亨利·喬治的《進步與貧困》一書起到了巨大的思想指導作用。

    最近,我讀完此書。它的主要內容是對貧困根源的研究以及解決辦法,但是最觸動我的地方是作者對貧困本身的描述。

    緒言中,亨利.喬治直接提出:

    “經濟發展不一定會緩解貧困,反而有可能加劇貧困,物質進步不僅不能解脫貧困,實際上它產生貧困。雖然經濟革命使生產力上升,但它不一定是在底部對社會結構起作用,把整個社會都抬高,反而好像一個巨大的楔子,在社會的中部穿過去。那些在分裂點以上的人們處境上升了,但是那些在分裂點以下的人們被壓碎了。”

    接著,亨利.喬治給出了這本書的核心問題。

    “盡管生產能力增加,為什么工資趨向僅能維持生活的最近限度?”

    看完這些話,我很感慨。此書是針對100多年前的美國寫的,但是彷佛就是在描繪今天的中國。我們也不禁要問,去年中國 GDP 的增長速度超過9%,但是為什么許多人的收入沒有跟隨 GDP 一起增長呢?

    亨利·喬治的答案是地租。

    “生產能力提高的同時,地租趨向更大的提高,因而產生迫使工資不斷下降的趨勢。”

    他的邏輯是這樣的。毛利要用來支付工資、利息和地租,亨利·喬治認為地租不斷上升,吃掉了原應屬于工資的那一份要素報酬,所以工資不斷下降。工人們的收入被地主占有了。

    這個答案顯然是錯的,至少在當代社會中是錯的。因為知識革命使得生產往往不需要很大的土地投入。所以,地租占利潤分配的比例是在不斷下降的。但是,另一方面,地租的升高確實使得工薪階層的相對收入變小。從這個角度看,地租與工資之間確實存在一個反比的關系。

    亨利·喬治的結論是:地租升高必然降低工資。為了減少貧困,必須阻止這種趨勢,他的解決辦法是土地公有化,更準確地說是地租公有化。

    “我提議的不是收購私有土地,也不是充公私有土地。前者是不公正的;后者是不必要的。……如果我們取得了核仁,可以讓他們據有外殼。沒有必要充公土地;只有必要充公地租。”

    這種方法的合理性在于:

    “現在有兩個同樣收入的人,一個人的收入來自他勞動的使用,另一個人的收入來自地租。要他們同樣負擔國家的費用,公平嗎?顯然不。

    一個人的收入代表了他創造的財富,并把它加進國家的總財富中;另一個人的收入只代表他從財富總量占有的一份,他沒出一點力。一個人享受他收入的權利以自然的正當理由為基礎,自然把財富報答勞動;另一個人享受他收入的權利僅僅是虛構的權利,是社會法規的創造物,是不為自然所知道和承認的。

    有人告訴當父親的,他必須以勞動所得撫養孩子,他必定默認,因為這是自然的命令;但只要還有一個便士屬于從壟斷自然機會中取得的收入,此人便可以公正地要求不能從他用勞動獲得地收入中取走一個便士,因為自然機會是大自然公平地給予所有人的,是他的孩子生下來就有的權利,他們也有平等的一份。”

    我認為亨利·喬治說的很有道理。地租上漲不創造社會的總財富,只是一種財富分配的手段,使得那些房地產所有者獲利,而這些錢原本是應該屬于整個社會的。所以,充公地租有其合理性。當然,實際操作難度很大。亨利·喬治的意思是,應該設法讓大部分的地租收益分配給全體人民。

    如果我們不這樣做,那么后果亨利·喬治也說得很清楚。

    “只要現代進步所帶來的全部增加的財富只是為個人積累巨大財產,增加奢侈,使富裕之家和貧困之家的差距更加懸殊,進步就不是真正的進步,它也難以持久。這種情形必定會產生反作用。塔樓在基礎上傾斜了,每增加一層只能加速它的最終崩潰。對注定必然貧窮的人進行教育,只是使他們騷動不安。把理論上人人平等的政治制度建筑在非常顯著的社會不平等狀況之上,等于把金字塔尖頂朝下豎立在地上。”

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:41:55

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