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    知識經濟中的貧富差距固定化

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期:2006年3月25日

    薛涌的著作《美國是如何培養精英的》,一直塞在書架上,出版社的朋友送的。

    昨天晚上,隨手翻了幾頁,覺得序言說出了一個重要問題,那就是在知識經濟時代,貧富差距有可能被固定化。

    “中高產階級通過對子女的教育,培養下一代社會精英。由于他們為自己的子女從小奠定了教育上的絕對優勢,在日后的競爭中就會立于不敗之地,別的階層很難對之挑戰。他們經濟、社會和文化優勢被固定下來、繼承下去。結果,美國社會貧富分化越來越嚴重,各階層之間的流動越來越小。”

    知識是競爭力的決定因素。擁有知識,很大程度上等于擁有財富。沒有受過良好教育,卻飛黃騰達,這樣的故事將來會越來越少。

    “過去的財富和權力,通過繼承而來的成分甚大。如今的財富和權力,則是通過教育而來。富裕階層之所以能逐漸穩固他們后代的社會地位,并不主要是因為他們留下了多少遺產,而是他們利用自己的經濟資源,對孩子從小進行嚴格的訓練。等他們的孩子長大后,作為個體具有超人一頭的才能,靠自己就能在競爭中獲勝。”

    比起富人來,窮人的孩子想得到良好的教育,不利因素太多了。如果從小悉心培養的話,整體上,富人的孩子長大后肯定會比窮人的孩子更有競爭力。所以,貧富差距有可能被固定化。

    “……如今,工人的機會正在消失,不讀書沒有出路。這些勞動家庭,有的根本不管孩子。好一些的,管也不知道怎么管,因為自己本身沒有受過什么教育,甚至不認識一個上過大學的人。他們的孩子,只有自己摸索。當然不能排除其中有奇才,以后像克林頓那樣當總統。但作為一個階層而言,他們在教育上和中高產階級的差距越來越大。這種差距,很快就會換算成經濟地位。”

    中國的情況尤其令人擔憂。(1)中國的教育機會是不平等的,不同地區、不同學校教育質量差距懸殊。(2)中國的教育經費大部分投入高等教育,而富人的孩子進一流大學的可能性是遠遠大于窮孩子的。(3)中國目前是世界上貧富差距最大的國家之一。這些因素加上一起,可見將來國內窮人的孩子要出頭,真是非常困難。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:41:56

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