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    卡爾維諾《樹上的男爵》

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期:2006年5月25日

    五年前(2001年7月19日),我寫過一篇書評,發表在《南方周末》。這是我第一篇公開發表的書評,很多人因為這篇文章,愛上了卡爾維諾。

    五年前的文字,依然代表了我今天的想法。這篇文章中,我寫進了自己的人生感受。柯西莫爬到樹上,因為他不想過地上的生活,他要尋找一條出路。這恰恰也是我的人生問題,我也要尋找一條出路。我看柯西莫的時候,彷佛就在看我自己。

    ”通過柯希莫的一生,卡爾維諾想告訴我們什么呢?他為我們指出了一條什么樣的生活道路呢?”

    “我想,可以這樣說,生活的出路還是在現實中,但又高于現實,尋找這種出路本身就構成了生活的意義。尋找離不開勇氣,而勇氣又來自純潔的理想。一個人如果在這些大的原則下度過自己的一生,那他的生命就不會虛度。“

    這與其說是我的認識,還不如說是我對自己的鼓勵。五年過去了,我想總得來說,我沒有辜負當年的這段話。

    今天,我依然在尋找的路上,這段話對我依然是一種鼓舞。下面是當年的那篇書評。

    追求生活的道路----讀卡爾維諾《樹上的男爵》 #

    卡爾維諾《我們的祖先》三部曲作為對人的生存問題的考察,三部小說各有側重。《不存在的騎士》是人爭取存在,《分成兩半的子爵》是人擺脫生命不完整的痛苦,《樹上的男爵》則回答,人怎樣才能找到一條生活的道路。

    《樹上的男爵》的故事情節大致是這樣的:1776年6月15日,意大利翁布羅薩的貴族少年柯希莫·迪·隆多(那時他12歲),因為和專制的父親阿米尼奧·迪·隆多男爵發生了爭執,一氣之下爬到了樹上,并發誓不再下樹。一開始,所有的人都沒在意,認為這只是小孩子的一時氣話,不必當真,但柯希莫堅守誓言,決意在樹上一直生活下去。

    這一待就是五十多年,柯希莫直到去世也沒有下過樹。小說寫了這五十多年中發生的一些重要事件,來反映他獨一無二的樹棲生活。這種生活多姿多彩,充滿挑戰。如果柯希莫沒有爬上樹,那么他的一生可能也就是過著貴族應該享受的中規中矩平庸安逸的生活了,但是他不接受這種地面上的生活,所以他爬上了樹,決不下來。在樹上,他打獵、讀書、戀愛、旅行,他和各種各樣的人交往,使一個兇殘的大盜愛上了小說,他幫助小城建立了防火系統,挫敗了土耳其海盜,打退了狼群的襲擊;他廣泛閱讀,比同時代人更早的接受新思想,他與伏爾泰和盧梭通信,印刷自己的出版物,成為當地共濟會的創始人,在大革命期間組織了當地的革命,成為市政委員會的一員,連拿破侖視察意大利的時候都慕名來拜訪他。

    《我們的祖先》中三部小說的樣式都是不同的,《分成兩半的子爵》是童話,《不存在的騎士》模擬了中世紀的騎士小說,而《樹上的男爵》采用的是現實主義手法。盡管柯希莫這個人物和他的故事都是虛構的,但一切的細節和歷史背景無不符合現實,柯希莫的一舉一動無不合情合理,樹上的生活也解釋得令人感到那是完全可能的。我想,形式服從主題,采用現實主義手法是和這部小說要討論的“人如何找到自己的生活道路”有關的,因為這個問題帶有很強的實踐性,人的行動受到現實的制約,不考慮現實因素是很難把這個問題說清楚的,即使說了也沒有說服力。童話故事是沒有辦法讓人鼓起勇氣和信心的,那是神仙的生活,不是人的生活。

    下面就討論這本小說的具體含義。《樹上的男爵》中“樹”是有象征的。柯希莫爬到樹上這種行為也是有象征的。我從書里選了兩段,就是很好的說明。先看這一段:

    “我哥哥認為,”我回答說,“誰想看清塵世就應同它保持必要的距離。”伏爾泰很欣賞這樣的答復。

    “從前,只是大自然創造生命現象,”他總結道,“現在是理智。”

    再看這一段:

    伯爵說:“你留在樹上做什么事情呢?沒有理由呀!”

    柯希莫張開雙臂:“我比你們早到這上面來,先生們,我也要留到最后!”

    “你要后退嗎?”伯爵大聲嚷。

    “不,是抵抗。”男爵回答。

    從這兩段可以看出,小說中“樹上的生活”和“地上的生活”是兩個對立的概念。“地上的生活”象征平庸、世俗、乏味,“樹上的生活”象征理想、高尚、富有精神性,“樹上的生活”高于“地上的生活”。柯希莫爬到樹上象征他不甘于平庸的生活,他堅持決不下樹象征他不放棄自己的理想,用他自己的話說,這是一種“抵抗”。

    從這個象征出發,對人物進行分析,可以看到一方面柯希莫喜歡“樹上的生活”,感到很自由,不愿下樹,但另一方面他又擺脫不了“地上的生活”,盡管他不下樹,但生活還是離不開要和地面上的人們打交道,地面上發生的事情還是要對他產生影響。畢竟,“樹”比“地面”高不了多少。小說中,柯希莫積極參加社會事務,并沒有因為待在樹上而遁世,但事實上他也不可能遁世,他追求自己的理想只能是局部的和修正的,而不可能是徹底的決絕的,準確的說,其中愿望和精神勝利的成分更多一些。柯希莫每到迷茫和郁悶的時候,就會爬到樹的最頂端,向遠方眺望,這個小說中一再提到的細節,是有著深刻寓意的。他沒有放棄“抵抗”,但他也爬不到天上。

    結尾的時候,柯希莫老來病至,奄奄一息,人們把床架到樹上,讓他躺著,醫生用梯子爬到樹上給他看病,但柯希莫仍然不愿意這樣被動的等待死亡。當一只熱氣球飛過樹頂,他像個孩子一樣一躍而起,抓住氣球的錨繩,被它帶著飛走了。這個結局為人物的塑造完成了最后一筆,這就是一個理想主義者的一生,他的生命中充滿了尋找和探索,哪怕是死亡也無法讓他改變。

    通過柯希莫的一生,卡爾維諾想告訴我們什么呢?他為我們指出了一條什么樣的生活道路呢?我想,可以這樣說,生活的出路還是在現實中,但又高于現實,尋找這種出路本身就構成了生活的意義。尋找離不開勇氣,而勇氣又來自純潔的理想。一個人如果在這些大的原則下度過自己的一生,那他的生命就不會虛度。至于生命應該以什么樣的方式來結束,人類的將來到底會是什么樣,小說里有一個暗示,那是說柯希莫想寫一本宣揚他樹上生活的書,他打算這樣結束那本書:

    作者創立了在樹頂上完善國家,說服全人類在那里定居,并且生活的幸福,他自己卻走下樹,生活在已經荒蕪的土地上。

    小說中,還寫了很多人物的死亡,有十幾個,而且所有的人的生活都不幸福,雖然在寫法上并沒有渲染這些內容,好象只是不經意的偶然提到,但讀來還是令人悵然。我想,正是因為短暫的生命中有那么多困難和不如意,死亡又在一旁窺視著我們,所以我們沒有時間憂傷和嘆息,我們必須認真的對待生命,去思考,去尋找。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:41:56

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