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    李鴻章百年祭

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期:2008年9月7日

    昨天,我在上海圖書館參觀了《江南制造局翻譯館文獻展》,有很多感想。

    江南制造局是洋務運動的一部分,而洋務運動的主要領導者就是李鴻章。2001年,讀完梁啟超的《李鴻章傳》,我寫過一篇讀后感,下面就是當年的那篇文章。

    1、

    李鴻章歿于光緒二十七年九月二十七日,換算成西歷,就是1901年11月17日。

    再過幾十天,就是他去世百年的祭日了。也許這是個注定不會被人們提起的日子。盡管他的同時代人,前輩如曾國藩,同僚如左宗棠、張之洞,后生如盛宣懷、張騫,都在被重新認識和評價,但面對李鴻章,人們寧愿保持沉默。自從我偶然發現了這個日子,幾次想動筆,又幾次放下,一百年的時光變遷,并沒有使評價李鴻章變得更容易一些。

    2、

    提到李鴻章,人們容易把他和中國歷史上一些屈辱的事件聯系在一起,諸如甲午海戰的失利、《馬關條約》和《辛丑條約》的簽定等等。由于對這些事件負有直接責任,李鴻章不可避免地成為口誅筆伐的對象,進而成了某種國家落后的象征,是“投降派”和“賣國賊”的典型代表。

    但是,如果我們考察歷史的真相,追問“為什么出現在這種場合的總是李鴻章,而不是其他人?”,就會發現問題的答案恰恰就是它的反面 ,李鴻章事實上并非推行一條賣國的路線,他希望通過洋務運動達到中國“自強”的目的,但是又不愿改變根本性的國家制度,這導致了他一生事業的最終總失敗,也是他身敗名裂的根本原因。

    3、

    讓我們來具體考察這幾個事件,那都是發生在他生命的最后幾年里的事。

    1894年的甲午海戰,日本輕易全殲了北洋水師,舉國嘩然,紛紛指責李鴻章指揮有誤。但不容辯解的是,沒有李鴻章的苦心經營,北洋水師就根本不會存在。成立新型海軍是他的建議,海軍的經費是他千方百計保證供給的,海軍的將官是他派出國培訓的,艦隊從國外購進的每一艘鐵甲艦船,他都要親自到碼頭查看。可就是這樣一支他花費無數心血的艦隊,到頭來卻被輕易地擊潰,李鴻章的作戰指揮失誤也許是一個原因,但其中不含有其他必然的因素嗎?如果換了一個人指揮,甲午海戰就能取得勝利嗎?這場戰爭的勝敗其實在戰爭之前就已經注定了。進一步說,如果不是有李鴻章的北洋水師,中國的戰敗也許在很多年前發生了。

    至于為什么是李鴻章出面簽訂喪權辱國的《馬關條約》和《辛丑條約》,原因就更簡單了:清政府發現偌大的中國除了他竟然找不到其他懂得外交談判的官員了。甲午戰爭失敗后,李鴻章作為清政府的代表去東京進行停戰談判,最后簽訂了《馬關條約》,同意將臺灣割讓給日本,這固然是無法讓人原諒的,但是“當戎馬壓境之際,為忍氣吞聲之言”(梁啟超語),這樣的結果換了別人恐怕也是很難避免的。

    《辛丑條約》的簽訂,李鴻章就更被動了。當時,八國聯軍占領北京,清政府匆忙西逃,逃命之際才想起了已年屆八十,下臺近五年的李鴻章,命令他赴京主持與八國的談判,收拾北京的爛攤子。誰都明白這項任命極其危險,而且對個人沒有任何好處,但李鴻章出于報國(清王朝)的考慮,還是決定北上,并在談判結束后的幾個月,死在了北京。

    由此可見,李鴻章的惡名很大一部分是他“自找”的,如果他不是積極推行“自強”措施,這些事件也許就不會由他來承擔。他不僅承擔了他個人的責任,還要替腐朽的清王朝分擔惡名。李鴻章不幸被歷史選為主要的個人,來承擔十九世紀中國的失敗,并非因為他的無能和賣國,而恰恰在于他想改變國家的命運,就不得不去承擔由此而來的責任。

    4、

    為李鴻章的所作所為辯護,并不是本文的主旨,在這方面已經有很多的論文和專著了。我只是在想,他去世已經一百年了,如果說在他生前我們還不足以完整的評估他那些“自強”措施,那么現在我們應該能夠客觀的評價它們對二十世紀中國的巨大影響,我們不能只看見開花結果而忘了發軔之處。

    光緒元年,李鴻章在一份奏折里曾這樣談到,他對當時中國的局勢的看法:

    今則東南海疆萬余里,各國通商傳教,往來自如,麋集京師,及各省腹地,陽托和好之名,陰懷吞噬之計,一國生事,諸國媾煽,實惟數千年來未有之變局。輪船電報之速,瞬息千里,軍器機事之精,工力百倍,又為數千年來未有之強敵。外患之乘,變幻如此,而我猶欲以成方制之,譬如醫者療疾,不問何癥,概投之以古方,誠未見其效也。……若非朝廷力開風氣,破拘攣之故習,求制勝之實濟,天下危局,終不可支,日后乏才,且有甚于今日者,以中國之大,而無自強自力之時,非惟可憂,抑亦可恥。

    從這個奏折看,李鴻章對國家危機的認識是很清醒的,他已經意識到了留給中國的時間不多了。他也曲折的指出中國的出路在于變革,雖然他沒有明說,但實際上他開出的“藥方”就是向西方學習,在中國進行從未有過的“現代化”運動。

    5、

    實事求是的說,中國的“現代化“始于李鴻章。

    他建立了中國歷史上第一支近代意義上的海軍;為了與海軍配套,他也同時建立了一系列軍工企業(上海的洋炮局、江南制造局,南京的金陵機器制造局),為中國工業打下最早的基礎;為了使軍工廠生產出來的輪船可以找到買主,他創建了“官督商辦”的輪船招商局,這是中國歷史上最早的民族資本的企業之一;軍工廠需要各種礦產和能源,于是他又開辦了中國最早的近代采掘企業和冶煉工業(開平礦務局、漠河金礦);中國第一條鐵路,第一根電報線都是在他領導下鋪設的;他提出派遣人員外出留學,其中就包括后來造就大批人才的留美幼童;他在各省設立洋學局,在上海設立外國語言文字學館(廣方言館),在天津設立醫學堂;他同時也招聘外國人才到中國擔任各種職位,使他們能夠為中國服務,但對他們的領導權仍然掌握在中國人手中。

    徐中約《中國近代史》的評價是:

    ”……李鴻章上升為自強運動無可匹敵的領袖,而且,雖然他只是一個省級大員(直隸總督),但由于他的職地靠近北京且得太后寵信,因此行使了中央政府的一些職權。超過90%的現代化規劃是在他的襄贊下發動的。“

    對于他的這些舉措,梁啟超稱”中國洋務人士,吾未見有其比也“。美國總統格蘭特退休后周游世界,稱李鴻章是他遇到的”四偉人“中的最偉大者(其他三位是德國首相俾斯麥,英國首相迪斯累里,法國總理甘必大)。

    但是這些措施,在他生前并沒有產生顯著的效果,反而因為耗資巨大,使李鴻章倍受朝內”清議派“官員的抨擊。李鴻章在給友人的信里感嘆:”官紳禁用洋人機器,終不得放手為之……文人學士動以崇尚異端、光怪陸離見責。中國人心真有萬不可解者矣。“

    一旦甲午海戰失利,李鴻章的下臺也就不可避免了。但是我們現在可以看到這些措施的意義極其深遠,從根本上影響了中國社會。也許李鴻章并沒有想到,二十世紀中國現代化采取的”向西方學習“的方向實際上是由他開創的。

    6、

    從細節和局部上看,李鴻章采取的這些措施是先進的,代表了未來中國發展方向的。但就它們所想達到的中國”自強“的目的來說,是根本不可能實現的。

    因為李鴻章的思想核心仍然是為清王朝服務,仍然希望保留封建統治和現有的政治結構。他認為只要學習西方的技術,就足以抵御外來入侵,而不用學習西方文明真正的精華……政治制度、文化、哲學、藝術等等(”中國文物制度,事事遠出西人之上。獨火器萬不能及“)。這就意味著他所倡導的”現代化“本質上是一種很膚淺、很表面的現代化,根本不足以達到國家真正的自強。梁啟超謂李鴻章”只懂洋務,不懂國務“,可謂一語中的,這就是他思想中最最落后的一面,也是他個人悲劇性人生的來源。李鴻章身后的毀譽榮辱皆系于此。

    李鴻章死后,嚴復有一副挽聯,上曰:

    使平生盡用其謀,其成功或不止此;

    設晚節無以自見,則士論又當何如。

    從挽聯看,嚴復對李鴻章是既有肯定,又有批評的。但他大概不會想到,李鴻章的聲譽會在其后的歲月里下降到何等可憐的地步。好在百年時光悠悠,中國的歷史也己進入了新的世紀,知其罪其,自有來人,想來在地下長眠百年的李公,可以瞑目了。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:41:58

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