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    互聯網和改造社會

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期:2008年11月22日

    前一段時間,我把《世界是平的》這本書又找出來,重讀了最后一章。

    最后一章中,作者托馬斯·弗里德曼問了一個問題:

    互聯網讓世界變得更安全,還是更危險?

    仔細思考一下,你會發現,這個問題遠比聽上去復雜。如果問題改一下,變成“互聯網是否有用”,那么回答毫無疑問是肯定的。但是“它是否讓世界變得更安全”,卻不是那么確定。

    互聯網大大加快了信息的傳播和交流速度,使得策劃和動員的成本變得極小化。邊陲小鎮的爆炸案,可以在幾個小時內傳遍全球,引發全國對恐怖活動的擔憂。只要一二個人在網上組織,就可以發動成百上千人的群體性事件,造成巨大的社會影響。更有甚者,911事件本身就是借助互聯網策劃的。

    難怪弗里德曼說:

    過去,如果你想做一番事業,就一定必須掌握國家機器,否則你無法動員大量資源。但是現在,個人借助互聯網,就可以將自己的影響力發揮到以前難以想像的程度。今天,沒有國家機器的小人物照樣可以干大事,可以對世界秩序造成嚴重的威脅。

    從本質上看,互聯網本身無所謂好壞,只是一種有用的工具,既可以造福人類,也可以破壞社會。一切取決于你如何使用它。

    按照弗里德曼的觀點,如果要確保互聯網對社會有益,關鍵在于使用者有著怎樣的想象力。

    如果人們有著正面的想象力,他們就會用互聯網做建設性的事情。他們會制造有價值的產品,推動文明,消除疏遠,提倡寬容、開放和希望。

    如果人們有著負面的想象力,他們就會用互聯網做破壞性的事情。他們會富有攻擊性,提倡封閉、排外和自給自足,要求增加限制,散布懷疑、不滿和怨恨。

    那么,怎樣才能讓人們有正面的想象力?

    弗里德曼說關鍵在于,人們在生活中必須感受到希望,而不是感受到恐懼。換句話說,有兩種統治方法,一種是給人們希望,另一種是讓人們恐懼,在這兩種情況下,人們都會愿意服從現行秩序。但是,在前一種情況下,人們會產生正面的想象力,愿意合作和建設;在后一種情況下,人們會產生負面的想象力,心中更多的是詛咒和破壞的愿望。

    那么,如何在人們心中,用希望代替恐懼呢?

    做到這一點非常簡單,就是給年輕人一個社會環境,只要憑自己的努力,想法能夠變成現實,他心中就會有希望。比方說,即使你的老爸來自肯尼亞,即使你從小家里就沒有錢,即使你屬于社會底層的黑人,你依然可以被選為美國總統。在這樣的社會里,人們就會有正面的想象力。

    反之,一個社會如果沒有言論自由,人們的想法只能憋在心里,而不能見諸報端,國家機器被政黨和利益集團壟斷,即使青年人看到了社會的弊端,也無法改進,他只能作為舊世界順從的奴隸,而不能作為新世界的創造者存在。猜猜這樣做的結果會怎樣?基本上,法國大革命就是因為這種事情而發生的。

    當你擁有成長的機會時,你會把精力放在對夢想的追求中。當你無路可走時,你會把精力放在憤怒上。

    按照社會契約論,政府的權力來自全社會的契約。當大多數人感到不滿的時候,政府就必須發生改變,否則人民將收回契約。來自社會底層的聲音,能夠一直通達權力的最上層。只有這樣,人們才能夠感覺到有能力改變自己的命運。處于這種社會環境中,人們會花時間思考下一步該做什么,而不是考慮下一個該指責的對象是誰。

    必須讓年輕人感到希望,而不是感到憤怒。否則他們將釋放他們的憤怒,用于破壞社會,而不是將潛力用于建設社會。如果你看到在巴勒斯坦,十幾歲的孩子充當人體炸彈,不惜用自殺來抗議,你就知道這種憤怒的破壞力有多大。

    互聯網是一種改造社會的工具,它可以放大和加速一切社會運動,不管是正面或是負面的。

    從這個角度看,互聯網似乎永遠是好的。如果一個社會給人希望,互聯網會讓它變得越來越好;如果一個社會讓人絕望,互聯網會放大對抗和對立,激化矛盾,加速它的滅亡。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:41:58

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