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    學歷證書的終結

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期: 2009年4月27日

    1、

    今天,我讀了美國風險投資家 Paul Graham 的文章《學歷證書的終結》(After Credentials)。

    Paul Graham 看到《紐約時報》有一篇報道韓國的文章,這樣寫道:

    “對于一個有抱負的韓國青年來說,高考不是成就他,就是毀了他。”

    家長也表示同意。

    “在我們這個社會,人生的70%到80%是由高考決定的。”

    這樣的說法,令 Paul Graham 感到既熟悉又陌生。熟悉的是,就在25年前,美國社會中也有類似的看法,一個貧家子弟要躋身上流社會,畢業于名牌大學是必要條件;陌生的是,這種看法已經在西方社會消失許久了,如今很少有美國人認為,個人的命運是由他就讀的學校決定的。

    Paul不禁提出了一個問題:“為什么在某些人心目中,學歷證書如此重要?”

    2、

    如果你仔細想想,本質上,學歷證書其實是可有可無的東西。如果你在學校里讀過書,何必要再發一張證書證明呢?只要你學到了知識,有沒有證書都無法改變這個事實,對不對?既然無法改變,又何必多此一舉呢?進一步說,為什么學生非要等到拿到證書以后,才離開學校呢?難道不能一學會想學的東西,就離開呢?為什么雇主會想查看學歷證書呢?他要找的是幫他賺錢的人,又不是在組建校友會?……

    學歷證書其實沒有辦法證明一個人的能力。如果你同意這一點的話,那么確實很奇怪,有人居然把這張紙看得這么重,而且更奇怪的是,真的有人的命運被這張紙改變了。

    3、

    古時候沒有學歷證書,所以學歷不是天經地義的,沒有“讀書就非拿證書不可”這回事,它反而是不自然的。你想一想,《論語》讀過就讀過了,要是你還拿出一張紙給別人看,上面寫著“此人讀過《論語》”,這多奇怪啊!

    說起來,世界上最早的學歷證書是我們中國人發明的。公元587年,隋文帝通過考試,選出全中國最精通古典文學的人。這就是科舉制度的起源。用今天的話說就是,通過市一級的院試,你就有本科證書了,算是混入知識分子隊伍了;通過省一級的鄉試,你就有了碩士證書;通過全國一級的會試,你就有了博士證書;通過皇帝主持的殿試,你就有了院士證書了。從此以后,憑著這張證書,國家就會向你發放俸祿,你就不愁餓肚子了。

    那么,隋文帝為什么要發明學歷證書呢?任何一本關于科舉制度的書,都會告訴你,這是為了選拔人才。隋文帝希望通過考試,找出全國最優秀的人才,讓他們來管理國家。

    于是,問題就變成了,隋文帝為什么認為考試制度能夠找到人才呢?這就要追溯到更古老的年代了。中國古代最早的人才選拔制度是“世襲制”,老子死了,兒子頂替,比如《史記》的作者司馬遷,他的爸爸是太史令,他就這樣接班當上了太史令。但是很顯然,人的才華不是可以遺傳的東西。所以,到了公元前134年,漢武帝采納董仲舒的建議,發明了新的人才選拔制度“舉孝廉”,規定地方官員在每20萬人中,選出一個孝順父母、辦事廉正的人,推薦到朝廷做官。但是,閉著眼睛也能想到,這個制度一定不會選出真正的人才,最終必然演變成用人唯親。所以,科舉制度是中國歷史上的一次巨大進步。因為如果不考試,朝廷就無法知道每個人的水平。雖然考試未必能甄選出最能干的人,但是至少比世襲制和推薦制,效果要好多了。

    第一個結論就是,學歷證書有助于鑒別人才。

    4、

    隋文帝面臨的問題,也是任何一個管理者面臨的問題:如何尋找和鑒定適任的員工。管理者通常對新員工一無所知,根本無從判斷他的能力,這個時候學歷證書就起到了一個認證作用。

    機構越大,學歷的認證作用越強。因為一方面,在大機構中,除了與你直接合作的同事,別人很難知道你的表現,另一方面,個人在大機構中的作用一般是不明顯的。所以,高層管理者需要其他量化的指標,判斷員工的表現。相反的,這些問題在小機構中就不存在,機構越小,就越沒人在乎你的學歷,因為你能干什么,別人都會看在眼里,并不需要一張紙來證明,何況那種紙并不可靠。

    第二個結論就是,學歷證書的認證作用與機構大小成正比。

    5、

    人類社會迄今的歷史,幾乎就是一部機構的膨脹史。這種趨勢在20世紀達到了登峰造極的地步,我們生活的各個方面都被大政府、大公司、大機構控制。機構越大,越需要證書,因此學歷的重要性也達到了空前的地步。

    大機構有多層次、多方面的需求,單一的證書早就不夠用了,取而代之的是一整套復雜的學歷教育體系,以及各種五花八門的能力認證證書。學歷制度人為地制造社會等級,將所有人分為專科、本科、碩士、博士幾個層次,這還不夠,每個層次當中,還要再分成名牌大學、一般大學、三流大學幾個層次。這樣才能適應大機構的員工選拔體系。

    我們中國人,常常被認為是重視教育的民族。其實,這是錯的,我們重視的不是教育,而是學歷。我們的民族文化中,充滿了對地位和權勢的崇尚。因為學歷是通往這條道路的敲門磚,所以中國(儒家)文化充分肯定學歷,進而以重視教育的形式表現出來,比如什么“朝為田舍郎,暮登天子堂”、“十年窗下無人問,一舉名成天下知”。

    拿到學歷,必須通過考試。但是,所有的考試都是有竅門的,針對性的復習和專門的訓練,可以幫助你在短期中迅速提高成績。因此,學歷越重要,應試化教育就越普遍,填鴨式的教育方法就越盛行,弄虛作假就越可能出現。這里就出現了一個可笑的背離。學歷體系的發展,反而使得學歷的證明力變弱了;教育制度的實際效果,反而在打擊教育的真正目的。

    第三個結論就是,學歷的證明力與學歷制度的重要性成反比。

    6、

    Paul Graham 認為,學歷在未來將不重要,原因是大機構將不再重要。

    互聯網的發展,使得小公司紛紛崛起,幾個人架一個網站,就可以向全世界的用戶提供服務。這樣的商業模式在未來將成為主流,機構臃腫、效率低下、創新遲緩、管理成本高昂的大公司將難以與之競爭,最終將被淘汰。

    本質上,學歷只是大機構內部管理的需要。一旦大機構消失,學歷也將喪失它的光環,教育將回歸到它的本來意義。人們來到學校,只是為了學習知識,不是為了得到一張文憑。

    會有這一天嗎?我相信會有,而且在我們有生之年都會看到。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:41:59

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