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    碩士學位的貶值

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期: 2009年5月14日

    1、

    今天,我在新華網上看到一篇嚇人的報道《轉為培養應用人才 我國碩士教育實現歷史性轉型》。

    教育部日前透露,國家今年擴招5萬個全日制專業學位碩士研究生。

    教育界人士指出,增加專業學位碩士研究生招生人數、提高專業學位研究生在碩士學位中的比例,是逐漸將碩士研究生教育從以培養學術型人才為主向以培養應用型人才為主轉變、實現研究生教育結構的歷史性轉型和戰略性調整。

    大致意思是說,搞理論研究不應該是碩士教育的主要方向,今后的碩士學位主要用來培養應用型人才,也就是高級職業培訓。為了實現這種“歷史性轉型”,2009年將在原定41.5萬的碩士招生規模上,再擴招5萬專業碩士。發展目標是5年后的2015年,專業碩士將占碩士總量的60%,在現在27%的基礎上翻一番多。

    2、

    我讀完這篇報道,心中禁不住地嘆息,碩士學位算是完了。

    本科擴招已經讓本科學位變得毫無用處,現在輪到碩士擴招了,碩士學位的大貶值將指日可待了。我不得不說,我真是太佩服教育部了。部里也知道,如果培養出一大堆物理學碩士、經濟學碩士、歷史學碩士,將來碩士的就業也將成為大問題。所以,擴招的方向就改成“專業學位的碩士”,這樣一來,既能達到擴招的目的,又能緩解就業問題,真是妙計啊。

    3、

    也許有的朋友不知道,什么是“專業學位”?它們同傳統的碩士學位有什么區別?我來簡單解釋一下。

    傳統上,一個人讀完大學以后,就算受過高等教育了,可以走上工作崗位了。只有那些有志于學術的人,才需要繼續留在大學里,攻讀更高的學位,也就是博士。按照西方學位制度設計者的本意,碩士并不是一個單獨的階段,只是博士階段的預備期。直到今天,很多美國大學----尤其是研究型大學----都沒有碩士培養計劃(master program),只給那些讀博士讀不下去的學生,發個碩士學位安慰一下,方便他找工作。

    事情的變化出現在20世紀初。美國有一些教授實在是太窮了,他們就在想怎么才能賺到錢。達特茅斯學院(Dartmouth College)的老師想出了一個好主意,他們說:“我們給商人發碩士學位吧。那些有錢人只上過本科,一定對碩士學位感興趣。我們就提供碩士學位讓他們買。”但是,碩士是理論型學位,商人不可能來學怎么寫論文,于是那些老師就發明了“專業學位碩士”,意思就是我們這個學位不研究理論,只研究如何經商。這就是工商管理碩士(MBA)的來歷。

    “專業學位”一發明出來,就大獲成功。盡管學費高昂,報名者還是趨之若鶩。不僅有錢人來學,連那些沒錢的人也勒緊褲腰帶來學,幻想學了以后也會變得一樣有錢。沒過幾年,窮教授們就紛紛脫貧,成為了富豪。其他地方的教授也紛紛效仿,于是一時間商學院在美國遍地開花,而且其他學科也跟進,政治學教授發明了“公共管理碩士”(MPA),醫學教授發明了“公共衛生碩士”,法學教授發明了“法律碩士”,工學教授發明了“工程碩士”,總之,每個教授都想分一杯羹。“專業學位”就是教授賺錢的新途徑,這在學術圈中是人盡皆知的秘密。

    結論就是,“專業學位”與傳統的碩士學位是完全不同的東西。它更像是一種高級職業培訓,是大學和專業人士互相需要(利用)的結果。

    4、

    說實話,碩士學位本來就是一個很尷尬的學位。一個碩士生畢業以后,論理論,他比不過博士;論實務,他比不過在同樣崗位上已經干了二年的本科生。所以,我一向認為,碩士學位的貶值是遲早的事情。

    但是,中國是一個神奇的國家,事情總以意想不到的方式發生。一種制度的改變,不是因為有更合理的制度取代了它,而是因為我們拼命使用不合理的制度,導致它的不合理之處發揮到了極致,最后實在是維持不下去了,不得不變。

    中國的學歷制度就是一個例子。我們常常說,重學歷、輕能力是中國社會的一個弊病。但是,恐怕很少人想到,這種弊病的解決方法,竟然是讓所有人都擁有本科學位!這一招真管用啊,經過10年擴招,果然是沒有雇主再相信本科學位了。

    下一個受害者就是碩士學位了。決策者注意到,“重學歷”的門檻上漲到了碩士學位,該學位有巨大的市場需求和擴招潛力,所以正在策劃,讓所有人都擁有碩士學位,采用的途徑就是發明五花八門的專業學位。

    按理說,專業學位屬于職業培訓,不應該招收應屆的本科畢業生,哈佛大學的 MBA 就很少收應屆生。但是根據報道,國務院學位辦處長任增林表示:

    “教育部2009年全日制專業學位碩士研究生招生計劃中,增加的5萬人主要用于招收,參加今年全國碩士研究生招生統一入學考試的應屆本科畢業生。今年全國共有610萬高校畢業生,還有100萬去年畢業的高校畢業生尚未就業。在應屆高校畢業生面臨巨大就業壓力的背景下,教育部新增的這部分招生計劃特別針對應屆畢業生。”

    不難看出,教育部已經打算將“專業學位”同傳統的碩士學位一樣來搞,大規模地面向應屆本科生開放,而專業學位的入學門檻是很低的。我們可以預期,神州各地的高校將以無比的熱情,掀起新一輪發展專業學位的浪潮。

    能說什么呢,碩士學位速成在望,速亡也在望了吧。寫到這里,我自然就想到,會不會有一天,所有人都擁有博士學位?所以,博士學位也完蛋了?

    5、

    下面給那些比我年輕的朋友提一點建議。

    由于碩士學位的貶值很快就會出現,所以你一定要想清楚,將寶貴的青春和金錢,用來交換一張意義不大的學歷證書是否值得。如果你喜歡搞科研(愿意當大學老師),那就不要停留在碩士,堅持下去一口氣把博士學位拿到。很多學校都有“碩博連讀”項目,本科畢業后,4~5年拿到博士,這還是值得的。否則的話,本科畢業后還是應該直接選擇就業。除了名校可能會有一點區別(更好的機會、更好的圖書館、更好的同學),其他學校的碩士意義不大,你得到的很可能不如你失去的東西多。至于專業學位,如果你是應屆生的話,還是把它忘了吧。

    有人也許會問,沒有了更高的學歷證書,怎么證明自己呢?

    我的看法是,在將來的時代,證明自己不靠學歷,而靠你做過的項目。與其將時間用來適應我國病態的學歷體系,還不如用來開創自己的項目。這不僅是證明自己,也是學習新知識的最好途徑。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:41:59

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