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    Unix 40歲的感想

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期: 2009年6月11日

    1、

    上個星期,《計算機世界》發表了一組文章,慶祝 Unix 操作系統誕生40周年。

    雖然我以前就知道 Unix 的故事,但是這組文章還是令我讀得津津有味。

    Unix 這個改變了計算機工業和人類社會的操作系統,完全是一個意料之外的產物。一個賦閑的程序員 + 一段意外的假期 + 一臺被淘汰的設備,Unix 就這樣誕生了。

    2、

    那個賦閑的程序員,叫做 Ken Thompson。照片看上去很成熟,其實年齡不大,發明 Unix 的時候只有26歲。

    1969年,他參與的研究項目 Multics 被貝爾實驗室取消了,他頓時就無事可干了。

    正好那年夏天,他的老婆帶著孩子回娘家了,只留下他一個人在新澤西。反正空閑時間多得很,他就用了一個月的時間,在家里寫了一個小型版的 Multics。但是,貝爾實驗室沒有機器可以讓他測試,因為那時計算機太貴了,不可能用于一個年輕程序員的業余項目。Ken Thompson 沒有辦法,只好在一臺型號為 PDP-7 的小型機上測試自己的軟件。這臺小型機因為性能太差,所以沒人去用,就被閑置在一邊了。雖然 PDP-7 叫小型機,其實也是龐然大物,需要一間房間才能放得下。

    PDP-7 在1965年上市的時候,價格是72000美元,已經屬于超級便宜的計算機了。第一版的 Unix 就是在這種機器上誕生的。

    3、

    Unix的發明其實只是40年前的事情,但是已經古老得像傳說一樣了。

    說起來真是讓人嚇一跳,40年前程序員日常工作的一部分,就是在紙帶上打孔,因為大型機只認識紙帶輸入。我們今天熟悉的顯示屏,還必須等到70年代才會出現。

    但是,從PDP-7到今天的網絡時代,只花了40年。技術進步的速度快得可怕。

    40年前,電腦沒有顯示屏。30年前,大多數電腦還不能放在寫字桌上,因為太大了。20年前,世界上還沒有一張網頁。10年前,搜索引擎還不存在,原因是網站太少,沒有搜索的必要。

    4、

    Unix 的發展史,進一步確立了我的一個想法,那就是社會進步的根本動力是技術。君不見因為科學技術停滯不前,中國的封建社會可以長達2000年。而歐洲為什么會發生文藝復興?一個重要原因就是印刷技術的傳入,使得新思想有機會廣泛傳播。

    Unix 是互聯網背后的關鍵技術,只用了短短40年就把世界完全改變。所以,我的想法是,如果想要推動社會進步,不一定要走政治這條路,而可以改從技術入手,用新技術來推動社會改造。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:41:59

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