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    為什么我不喜歡現行的版權制度

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期:2009年11月21日

    首先說明一點,我反感的不是版權制度,而是現行的版權制度,因為它已經淪為一些大集團大公司攫取超額利潤的工具了。

    版權制度的初衷是保護作者的利益,但是實際上,現行的版權制度更多得保護大公司的利益。目前,全世界的版權收益,大部分都歸法人所有。版權制度的作用已經從鼓勵原創,蛻變成保護壟斷了。一個最好的證明是,人類的生產力在不斷提高,但是版權保護期卻越來越長。現在,一個人去世以后,他的作品繼續被保護的年限,在中國是50年,在美國是95年。這是毫無理由的,唯一的原因就是,大公司這樣才能賺到更多的錢。

    上個世紀60個年代,美國法院開庭審理,集成電路的發明人到底是羅伯特·諾伊斯,還是杰克·基爾比。可是,原告和被告既不是諾伊斯,也不是基爾比,而是兩家公司----仙童公司和德州儀器公司。原因是這兩家公司各自購買了集成電路的相關發明,迫切需要保護自己的版權。

    既然版權都歸大公司所有,而大公司的生存目的就是利潤最大化,所以它們會窮盡一切手段,維護版權制度,而不管這樣會不會阻礙知識的傳播和不利于增進全人類的福利。以 BT 下載網站海盜灣為例,美國所有最賺錢的娛樂公司都在起訴它,而使用海盜灣的人,說實話,大部分都是真的很窮的大學生和程序員。既然你已經賺到這么多錢了,為什么不放過那些窮人呢?----做夢去吧,休想從我這里拿走一分錢!

    海盜灣的存在,并沒有讓世界變得更加糟糕。倒是那些保護壟斷的大公司,由于它們的存在,人類文明的成果就無法廉價地傳播,貧困的青年就無法得到自己想要的知識。當你創造出一件新東西,理應讓更多的人看到它,這樣對全世界最有利,但是現行的版權制度,實際上鼓勵你把它鎖起來,不讓別人看到!

    有人也許會說,沒有版權,人們就不會有動力去創新。自由軟件運動的成功,就證明了這種說法是不對的。事實上,自由分享也能做出偉大的作品,而且還能通過服務賺到錢。”自由軟件之父”理查德·斯托曼就說過:“我絕不把自己的人生,用來建造囚禁他人的監獄”!所以,以后請再也不要說“版權制度鼓勵原創”之類的話了,那純粹是資本家的煙霧彈,而且是對人類創造力的褻瀆。真正偉大的發明,都是出于愛好或者出于“增進人類福利”這樣崇高的目的而做出來的,不是為了錢!

    現行的版權制度是不合理的,迫切需要改革。我們需要一種鼓勵分享、而不是鼓勵壟斷的制度。整件事情的關鍵是,知識和其他財產所有權不一樣,知識是一種非排他性的資產,用的人越多,收益越大,而現行的版權制度人為地將知識變成一種排他性資產,阻止他人使用。這是不對的,盈利可以通過提供相關服務來實現,而不應通過限制知識傳播來實現。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:41:59

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