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    決定,還是做決定

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期: 2009年12月14日

    前幾天,我讀到語言學者 George Chen 的一篇文章,感到非常發人深省。

    他用日常生活的一件小事作為例子,說明了一個重大的語言問題。請看下面這段對話:

    服務員:歡迎光臨本店,很高興為您提供服務。

    顧客(拿起菜單):請向我做個介紹。

    (服務員介紹菜單。)

    顧客:你還有什么要做補充?

    (服務員又介紹了其他菜。)

    服務員:我還可以為您做什么服務?

    顧客:桌子不太干凈,你來做個清理。

    你有沒有看出什么問題?

    對了,他們使用的語言都有一點奇怪,放著簡單的動詞不用,偏要使用更長的名詞詞組。比如,他們不說“為您服務”,卻說“為您提供服務”,不說“清理桌面”,卻說“對桌面做個清理”。

    實際上,這樣的用法在日常生活中比比皆是。

    • 各位觀眾,我是記者XXX,現在上海向您做現場報道。
    • 我和你要做一次私下的談話。
    • 今年暑假,我打算做一次長途旅行。
    • 觀眾朋友也許會奇怪,為什么今天我們選擇這個話題來做討論。
    • 醫生對這個病人進行了為期一周的觀察。
    • 他很快就進入了睡眠。
    • 在做出結論前,我們要進行一個調查的過程。
    • 閱覽室里人很多,但是大家都保持安靜的狀態。

    嚴格地說,這些都是很奇怪的中文,表達起來既不清晰,又不簡潔,發展下去必然導致語言能力的退化。余光中教授在一次演講中,就提到過后果。

    本來我們可能是說:“你決定了沒有?”、“我還沒有決定。”但是現在卻說“你做出決定了嗎?”、“我快要做出決定了。”

    日本竄改史實,東南亞各國紛紛“做出抗議”。所以如果照此趨勢發展下去,“做出”就成了一個萬能的動詞,而取代原來有血有肉的動詞。例如決定、讓步、抗議、提議等,都被軟化成“做出決定”、“做出讓步”、“做出抗議”、“做出提議”。我怕有一天只剩下一個動詞:“做出”。

    我在此“做出”演講,各位“做出”會心的微笑,我繼續“做出”演講,各位繼續“做出”筆記。

    近年來,這種做法好像越來越流行,社會各界都在使用。一個主要原因就是,有些人認為,長音節的表達方式,會顯得比較恭敬和優雅;短音節的表達方式,反而顯得粗魯和不文雅。

    這樣想是有害的。要知道,句子越短,就越容易被他人理解。如果你滿口都是長音節的名詞詞組,別人聽懂你的意思,就會很費勁。當你遇到危險,你肯定大喊“救命”,要是喊“請做出救我的動作”,不死才怪呢。同理,如果想寫出受歡迎的文章,一個竅門就是盡量不要使用長句。

    追溯源頭,這種有害的表達方式,其實來自于英語。長期以來,英語中就流行把動詞變成名詞詞組,比如 decide(決定)是一個動詞,但是英國人更喜歡使用 make a decision(做出決定)這個詞組。

    大作家 George Orwell 就批評過這種做法。他舉了很多例子,人們不說 prevent(阻礙),而說 militate against something(對某事產生不利影響);不說 contact(聯系),而說 make contact with(做聯系);不說 recieve(受到),而說 be subjected to(經受某人或某事的影響);不說 cause(導致),而說 give rise to(給了它發展的機會);不說 yield(屈服),而說 give grounds for(把自己的地盤讓給對方);不說 effect(影響),而說 have the effect of(具有怎樣的效果);不說 be important(非常重要),而說 play a leading part (role) in(扮演了關鍵角色);不說 be found(被發現),而說 make itself felt(使它被感覺到了);不說 affect(生效),而說 take effect(產生了效果);不說 intend(打算),而說 exhibit a tendency to (顯示一種傾向)。

    我的中文寫作,也有這種不好的傾向。我寫這篇筆記,就是為了提醒自己,沒有特殊原因的話,如果有單個動詞可以用,就絕不要使用它的名詞詞組形式。我希望其他朋友也能注意到這個問題,大家一起努力,保持語言的簡潔易懂。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:41:59

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