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    為什么要容忍錯誤言論?

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期: 2010年1月23日

    奧地利作家茨威格的小說《異端的權利》,講了一個真實的故事。

    十六世紀時,一個孤立無援的教士因為信仰,向宗教獨裁者加爾文挑戰。那個教士除了信仰以外,一無所有,而加爾文掌握了所有資源,并且操縱了整個的國家機器。

    一個人,既手無寸鐵又單槍匹馬,怎么能指望戰勝有成千上萬的支持,又有全部國家力量裝備著的加爾文呢?

    加爾文是一位組織藝術的大師,能夠使全城全國轉化為嚴格順從的機器;能夠撲滅獨立思想,下令禁止思想自由而有利于他的全部教條。國家權力在他的至高無上的控制之下,各種權力機關----市行政會議和宗教法庭,大學和法院,金融和道德,教士和學校,巡捕和監獄,文字和言論,甚至最秘密的切切私語,都聽任他擺布。他的教條已成為法律,任何人膽敢懷疑就要立刻受到教訓,用壓制討論的辯論,用徹頭徹尾精神暴虐的辯論,用監禁、流放或者火刑。這教訓就是在日內瓦只有一條真理是完全正確的:加爾文即先知。

    今天,我重新讀了一遍這本書,深感收獲重大。我把這本書鄭重推薦給大家,希望大家至少能夠記住這本書的書名:即使異端也有自己的權利!

    閱讀過程中,我一直思考一個問題:為什么會有人認為,”錯誤的“或者”不負責任的“言論就應該被禁止或刪除呢?難道它們真的有那么大的危害嗎?為什么我們不能嘗試容忍錯誤的言論呢?

    即使有些言論可笑之極或大逆不道,我們加以容忍,并且保障人們有說出這些言論的權利,難道不是有利的嗎?

    沒錯,我就是想解釋為什么”言論自由原則“是必需的。

    模仿德肖微茨教授的觀點,我將理由分成三點:

    (1)錯誤言論不一定是錯的,而很可能是我們的偏見。

    歷史一次又一次地證明,真理最初只掌握在少數人手里,如果我們不讓這些少數人說出觀點,歷史就無法進步,很可能直到今天人類還以為地球是宇宙的中心。另一方面,許多時候,所謂的”錯誤言論“,其實只是不符合當權者私利的言論,如果完全被禁止,只會對社會公平正義造成損害。

    (2)必須保證任何人都有提出異議的權利。

    請試想,如果你和一個人在法庭上辯論,法官發出裁決,只有對手才有資格說話,你卻被禁止不得開口,難道你不立即抗議這不公平的對待呢?如果我們的制度是,錯誤的人、可恥的人、或者至少是那些有權有勢者看來是這樣的人,都被禁止發表意見,那會是怎樣的情景!

    (3)禁止錯誤的言論,并不會讓正確的言論變得更正確。

    如果你的觀點是正確的,你有什么可怕的呢?狂熱的群眾運動,或者鋪天蓋地的吹捧,都不會讓一個錯誤的觀點變得更正確。真理總是真理,謬誤總是謬誤。宣傳真理的正確做法,并不是禁止錯誤言論,而是用正確言論駁倒對方。你根本不用擔心真理會敗給謬誤,因為真理是駁不倒的,任何需要保衛的真理都不是真理。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:41:59

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