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    什么是邊際?

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期:2010年10月22日

    這幾天睡覺前,我都在讀《顧準的最后25年》。

    這本書的優點是對歷史的記錄比較準確和客觀,缺點是不涉及深層次的問題,分析得比較淺,但是還算值得一讀。

    書中寫了一件事,很有意義,值得分享。

    話說1959年,為了保證糧食產量,根據毛澤東主席的指示,中共中央發出了《關于農業的五條緊急指示》。其中的第二條指示是這樣的:
    ”二、……做好麥收的一切準備,保證豐產豐收,顆粒還家。”

    于是,各地根據指示的精神,發起了“顆粒還家”運動。也就是說,要求把掉落在地里的麥穗都撿回家。因為中央的要求是“顆粒還家”,所以理論上,必須把每一顆麥粒都撿回家。

    此時,顧準正在河南商城縣的干校勞動改造。他聽到“顆粒還家”這個口號以后,私下對同伴說,中央的這個指示是錯的,因為它在經濟上不合算。

    “如果一個農家老婦上地里撿麥穗,每天能撿回十斤八斤麥子當然很好,但是后來如果每天只能撿回一斤麥子,而她每天的消耗也要一斤麥子時,就到了邊界(,就不應該再去撿了)。”

    顧準的意思是說,地里的麥穗總是越撿越少,每一天的成果都是遞減的。那么總有一天,撿到的麥穗還不夠彌補付出的勞動力,這時就不應該再撿了,剩下的“顆粒”不必再“還家”了,否則在經濟上就是蠢事了。

    我看到這段話,馬上意識到,顧準講到的就是經濟學的“邊際”概念。他的這個例子如此通俗,是我見過的最簡單易懂的對“邊際”的解釋。

    邊際(margin)是經濟學的基礎概念,相當抽象。一般的教科書上總是解釋,所謂“邊際”就是下一個單位的量,在數學上就是某一個點對應的導數。這樣的描述,初學者不容易理解,現在有了顧準這個例子,一切就簡單多了。

    什么是邊際?它就是你在下一天撿到的麥穗數量。

    “邊際產量遞減”是經濟學的基本原理,即你每天撿到的麥穗必定越來越少。推論就是,邊際產量等于邊際投入時,利潤最大,即當你撿到的麥穗等于你付出的成本的那一天,整個“顆粒還家”行動的凈效益達到最大。

    顧準能夠如此熟練地運用經濟學原理,分析現實問題,真是很有水平。可惜中央的政策豈能隨便被質疑,一個小人物自以為是地評點權威,不是自尋死路嗎?像他這種獨立思考、又忍不住要說出來的人,難怪一生會如此坎坷凄涼。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:42:00

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