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    美麗新世界

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期: 2011年3月28日

    最近,我在整理以前的舊文章。突然想起來,多年前,我曾經寫過一篇英國小說《美麗新世界》的書評,還未發表過。現在就把這篇舊文章貼出來,內容似乎一點沒有過時。

    =================

    1931年,歐洲一片混亂。大蕭條處在高峰期,到處是找不到工作的窮人,中產階級面臨破產,各國政府搖搖欲墜,極左或極右的思潮紛紛出籠。為了對抗危機,越來越多的人相信一個集權的政府將是必要的。

    這種想法讓一個37歲的英國人很擔憂。他從飛速發展的汽車工業身上,預感到一旦集權的政府上臺,未來的國家機器將不再用警察和軍隊來維持統治,取而代之的是各種高科技手段。統治的目標將是經濟繁榮,為了實現這個目標,人類也將被改造。

    他寫了一本預言小說,提醒人們關注這種危險。這本薄薄的十多萬字的小說,一經發表,就轟動了世界。隨著時間的流逝,其中的預言不僅沒有過時,反而歷久彌新,變得更有現實意義了。這個英國人就是小說家阿道斯·赫胥黎(Aldous Huxley,1894--1963),這本小說就是著名的《美麗新世界》(Brave New World)。

    小說中的“美麗新世界”有高度的物質文明,所有一切都是自動化的。人們不愁吃穿,享受著最舒適的生活,每天下班以后,可以乘坐私人的超音速飛機,去世界各地度假旅行。經濟繁榮和享受生活成為整個社會唯一的哲學理念,也是唯一的宗教。第一個采用流水線生產的亨利·福特被視為新的上帝,他生產出第一輛“福特”T型車的1908年被采納為新的紀元元年(小說的故事就發生在福特632年,也就是公元2540年)。

    阿道斯·赫胥黎這樣推理:人類認識到了科學帶來的巨大生產力,享受了流水線生產出來的豐富的物質產品,也同時發現了這種生活模式的脆弱性。人類社會中的種種不穩定因素----大到戰爭動亂,小到失戀生病----都會影響到物質生產,進而在不同程度上使人類社會發生混亂和倒退。于是,為了保證社會的穩定和繁榮,保證各種物質能夠源源不斷的生產出來,實現人類的幸福,就有必要消滅這些不穩定因素。

    “美麗新世界”的設計者認識到,改造社會的基礎在于改造人。以前諸次社會革命,之所以成果不大,就在于它們對人的改造還不徹底。“美麗新世界”將利用先進的科學技術,在四個方面徹底改造人。

    (1)杜絕有先天缺陷的嬰兒,建立萬無一失的優生體系。人的生產采用標準化的工業過程。人類的出生地不再是醫院婦產科,而是類似高級養殖場的“人類孵化中心”。為了防止父母的不良基因遺傳給新生兒,胎生被取消,人是直接在孵化車間里被創造的,身上只含有優良的基因,所有對社會穩定繁榮不利的基因都將被去除。

    (2)并不是所有的工作都需要高質量的人來完成的。如果讓有才干的人去干低級工作,他勢必會感到非常痛苦,這就為社會不安定埋下了隱患。低等人的活只能讓低等人去干,因為他們不會覺得在做犧牲。所以對人進行識別和分類是免不了的,識別工作從胚胎時期就開始了,不同等級的胚胎將接受不同的培養,并且用各種手段強化胚胎之間的差別,以便適應將來不同崗位的需要。比如,在胚胎發育的后期,等級越低的胚胎就供氧越少,最早受到影響的是頭腦,然后是骨骼,這樣就確保了這些胚胎無論在智力和體力上都是低人一等的。

    (3)只給人分類是遠遠不夠的,還必須讓每個人安心接受自己的等級,熱愛自己的等級,忠于自己的等級,這樣才能避免等級之間的沖突。這必須靠宣傳和教育來實現。在“美麗新世界”里,每個人從嬰兒期開始就接受精心安排的說教,哪怕睡眠的時候,都會有一只喇叭對著你的耳朵,低聲細語,反復灌輸各種教條。一旦人在思想上接受了社會現實,認為發生的一切都是合理的,就不會有自覺的動力去改進社會,那么社會不穩定的因素就消除了一大半。

    (4)人在日常生活中還是會產生很多煩惱和痛苦,必須找到辦法來消除它們。最常見的煩惱有兩種,一種是性壓抑,另一種是衰老。性壓抑是人類社會穩定的大敵。為了使每個人性欲都能得到充分的滿足釋放,“美麗新世界”提倡性的泛交,男女之間不再有夫妻關系,而只有性交關系。至于征服衰老,這“并不是因為要保證老年人的健康,而是因為老年人總喜歡消極退卻,相信宗教,靠讀書和思考混日子。他們會思考”,這是對社會穩定的潛在威脅。所以必須“給他們保健,不讓他們生病,人工維持他們的內分泌,像年輕人一樣,給他們輸入年輕人的血液,保證他們的新陳代謝永遠活躍。因此他們就不會老。”

    除此以外,“美麗新世界”還提供一種安全的麻醉藥,叫做唆麻(soma),這種麻醉藥“具有基督教和酒精的一切好處,卻沒有兩者的壞處”,一旦產生了各種煩惱,只要服了這種藥,就會立刻昏昏大睡,醒來以后所有不愉快都會忘得一干二凈。

    “美麗新世界”的設計者明白,社會穩定的關鍵在于控制人的思想。思想自由是最大的威脅。新思潮的出現,往往是社會革命的前奏。允許一個人自由思考,接觸各種思潮,將是極具有破壞力的。于是,新世界里不允許思想自由,因為這種自由的副作用實在太大,將有可能將人類幸幸苦苦創造的物質毀于一旦。在“美麗新世界”里,各種有害思想都象病菌一樣被排除在外。人們不再需要宗教,因為沒有什么可祝福和祈禱的,人們也不再信仰上帝,而轉而信仰亨利·福特。國家用快樂和消遣作為思想的替代品,思想的空白被各種各樣的娛樂和感官上的刺激所填補。

    寫到這里,“美麗新世界”是一個什么樣的世界,大家也就一目了然了。這是個極度繁華的世界,又是個人地位極度卑微的世界。人喪失了思想的功能,只是作為社會的附庸而存在,社會財富不僅是人享受的對象,更成為了人為之服務的主人。幸福本來是人生追求的一種目的,現在卻反過來成為人的枷鎖,這不能不引起我們的深思。

    赫胥黎寫作這篇小說的時代,二十世紀的科學大爆炸才剛剛開始。七十年過去了,小說中的許多預言已經實現(比如克隆技術),而且人類社會的某些發展似乎也正朝著小說中的方向前進。也許現在我們還說不上來,理想的社會應該是什么樣,但至少《美麗新世界》為我們提供了一個反例,不理想的社會可能是什么樣。

    對于這樣的社會,盡管它有那么多的好處,我們的回答也仍然象書中“野蠻人”(指來自“美麗新世界”以外的人)的回答一樣:

    野蠻人說:“我不需要舒服。我需要上帝,需要詩,需要真正的危險,需要自由,需要善,需要罪惡。”

    “實際上你要求的是受苦受難的權利。”

    “那好,”野蠻人挑戰地說,“我現在就要求受苦受難的權利。”

    “你還沒說要求衰老、丑陋和陽痿的權利;要求害梅毒和癌癥的權利;要求食物匱乏的權利;討人厭煩的權利;要求總是戰戰兢兢害怕明天會發生的事的權利。要求害傷寒的權利;要求受到種種難以描述的痛苦折磨的權利。”

    良久的沉默。

    “這一切我都要求。”野蠻人終于說道。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:42:00

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