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    論文的版權屬于誰?

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期:2011年8月1日

    今天的《新京報》有一篇好文章《他是數字時代羅賓漢?》。這篇文章宣揚了“論文不是私有財產”的觀點,這在國內媒體之中是很少見的。

    下面,我簡單介紹一下該文提到的那個事件。然后在此基礎上,談談我對論文版權歸屬的看法。

    今年7月19日,美國程序員 Aaron Swartz 被警方逮捕,美國政府對他提起刑事指控,罪名是非法侵入 JSTOR 論文數據庫。Aaron Swartz 非常年輕,還不滿25歲,但早已是互聯網名人。他14歲就參與編寫 RSS 1.0 規格,并且加入 W3C 組織的 RDF 工作組;19歲從斯坦福大學退學,開始創業;20歲與朋友一起創立了 Reddit;21歲參與創立 Open Library;23歲被哈佛大學聘用。

    根據起訴書,他在2010年9月24日--2011年1月6日期間,采用各種技術手段,利用 MIT(麻省理工學院)網絡,偽造身份,侵入 JSTOR 論文數據庫,總共非法下載480萬篇論文,導致 JSTOR 一度癱瘓。由于他不斷變換 IP 和 MAC 地址,躲過封鎖,JSTOR 無計可施,被迫禁止所有 MIT 用戶訪問,長達四天。

    起訴書稱,他獲取這些論文的目的,是為了將它們放上文件分享網站。但是,截止被捕時,他還未采取具體行動。現在,Aaron Swartz 面臨多項刑事指控,而且都是聯邦重罪,一旦罪名成立,他就要坐牢和付出巨額罰金。

    許多程序員對這件事,感到很不理解,甚至憤怒:那些論文并不是 JSTOR 的私有財產,Aaron Swartz 也不是為了獲利,單純的侵入系統不應該得到這么重的懲罰。Aaron Swartz 被捕后的第三天,2011年7月21日,一個用戶名為 Greg Maxwell 的人,在海盜灣上傳了一個 BT 下載的 torrent 文件,里面包含18,592篇來自 JSTOR 的論文,共計32.48GB,作為聲援。他還附上了一封很長的公開信,解釋為什么他支持 Aaron Swartz。

    “torrent 文件包含的論文,都是在1923年前發表的,因此屬于公共領域。它們理應是全人類的共同財產,但是你卻無法自由地得到它們。JSTOR 對每篇文章要價19美元,而且只允許單用戶在一臺計算機上瀏覽。這實際上是對全人類的偷竊。

    學術論文本應該允許自由獲得,但是大多數論文都被像 JSTOR 這樣的守門員,以高額收費的形式阻止傳播。

    尤其不合適的是,論文的原作者實際上并沒有因為這樣嚴格的版權限制,而獲得收入,更何況發表論文的雜志本來就是免費獲得這些論文的。與那些只供娛樂的作品不同,限制學術論文的傳播,會影響全人類的福利,我們的生存依賴于科學技術的發展和傳播。

    如果我讓這種不義之財的版權收入,少掉1美元,但是增加了人們對科學技術的理解,那么不管我個人付出怎樣的代價,我都認為自己做出了正確的選擇。

    我曾經考慮過匿名發布這些文件,但是 Aaron Swartz 的被捕,以及他被起訴的那些荒唐的罪名,使得我的良心不安。我對自己說,任何值得做的事情,往往值得你用真名去做。”

    這真是一封很有力的公開信。很多人留言表示支持,有人說:”盡管我用不到這些論文,但是我還是要為它們做種子。“

    Aaron Swartz 案件,目前情況就是這樣。這個案子的”作案“動機和引起的反響,都與現行的論文版權制度有關。這個制度很不合理,就拿 JSTOR 來說吧。它是我用過的最好的論文庫:資料齊全,更新快速,文檔清晰,檢索方便,界面美觀實用。但是,它的價格很貴。網上的資料說,即使你購買的范圍只包括幾十本雜志,年收費也在5萬美元以上。前面的公開信已經提到,對于單篇論文,JSTOR 的收費一般是19美元/篇,過期的論文是8美元/篇。而且,JSTOR 明文規定,下載的論文不得公開傳播,否則就侵犯了它的版權。國內的論文庫也有類似的規定,比如這份用戶協議就很典型:

    ”未經明確授權許可,用戶不得進行復制、修改、出租、散布或衍生其他作品,或用以商業性目的。“

    這里的問題是:這些論文真的歸 JSTOR 所有嗎?如果不歸你所有,你有什么權力限制他人傳播?

    這就是論文版權制度不合理的地方。當作者寫出論文以后,向雜志社投稿,論文的版權仿佛就歸雜志社了,進而莫名其妙變成了某些數據庫公司的財產。這真的非常不合理。

    正確的主張是,論文(至少是一部分論文)應該屬于公共領域,沒有版權。理由有三個。

    (1)論文的來源。

    大學教授的論文,都屬于”職務內成果“。學校已經根據你的成就,向你支付相應的薪水了,所以學術界的傳統是,發表論文不收取報酬,因為學校已經付酬了。對于公立大學來說,資金來自全體納稅人,因此是全體納稅人在資助你發表論文,所以你的論文成果理應屬于全社會共享。如果你的論文來自國家科研基金資助的項目,那么它的”公有品“性質就更明顯了。

    (2)論文出版部門不應享受版權。

    雜志社和數據庫公司自稱擁有論文版權,這是最荒唐的事情。因為它們沒有為成果的誕生做出任何付出,而且它們發表學術論文一般是不付酬的(國內的雜志甚至還向作者索取”版面費“),它們出售論文獲得的收益一般也不會分給作者,所以它們根本沒有資格聲稱擁有版權。

    (寫到這里,我不禁想到了一件事情。幾個月前,國內的”XX網絡圖書館“來了一個推銷員,聲稱要贈送我一張讀書卡,可以在10年內免費進入該網絡圖書館,任意閱讀里面的書籍。只要我簽收,就能拿到這張卡。可是,我仔細一看,所謂的簽收單,居然是一份授權合同,表明我授權他們使用由我編撰的書籍!他們就以贈卡為誘餌,盼著我一不注意簽收了,然后就可以把我的書收入他們的庫去賣錢。他們就用這種方式獲得授權,付出的代價僅僅是允許作者進入他們的庫,一分錢現金也不用出,真是巧妙啊!我當然不簽,可是我看到很多不明白里面奧秘的老師已經簽了。那位推銷員大叔,你到處說你來”送卡“,還說簽個字就行,我真鄙視你啊。)

    (3)論文的外部效應。

    論文不是消費品,而是知識;消費品越用越少,知識越用越多。知識的自由傳播是造福全人類的事情,限制論文流通是以犧牲人類福利為代價的,換來的只是一些壟斷機構的利潤。廢除論文版權,不會抑制創新,只會推動創新。

    綜上所述,論文的版權理應屬于公共領域。JSTOR 禁止論文傳播的做法是不對的,Aaron Swartz 的信念則是正確的。雖然他的做法不可取,但是遠遠夠不上犯罪。

    ”論文共有“的信念,實際上在學術界已經得到廣泛認同。很多學者把論文放到網上,允許自由下載。arxiv.org 就是一個這樣的網站。它是目前全球最大的論文預印本的電子數據庫。在上面,你可以自由下載數學領域的所有重要論文,以及物理領域的大部分重要論文,完全是合法的。它已經超過傳統雜志,成了發表數學和物理論文的首選渠道了。它不收錄社會科學和人文藝術領域的論文,但是我相信這樣的網站遲早也會出現。

    總有那么一天,我們可以完全自由地,在互聯網上查看人類歷史上的每一篇論文。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:42:00

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