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    胡適的三個主義

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期:2012年4月13日

    來臺灣之前,我就想好了,一定要去胡適紀念館看看。

    昨天終于成行,先坐捷運,到了位于南港的中央研究院。然后,按照地圖,找到了西南角的“胡適紀念館”。

    我喜歡胡適,是從大學期間閱讀《胡適口述自傳》開始的。這本書讓我大開眼界,意識到真正的學術不同于官方的意識形態,而是一種生動活潑、引人入勝的智力追求。后來,我大量閱讀胡適的著作,斷斷續續讀完了四卷本的《胡適文存》和一部分《胡適全集》。在治學方法和為人處事上,都深受他的影響。

    在我看來,胡適的主要信念,可以總結為三個主義:實用主義、實驗主義和自由主義。

    一、實用主義 #

    胡適師從實用主義大師杜威(John Dewey)。他完全繼承了老師的主張,不提倡研究那些抽象的哲學思辨問題,而主要關注一些更實際的、與人自身相關的問題,注重實踐和工具的重要性。

    胡適最著名的一句話就是:

    “多研究些問題,少談點主義。”

    胡適認為,具體的問題比抽象的主義更重要。

    “主義的危險,就是能使人心滿意足,自以為尋著治病的根本方法,從此用不著費心力去研究這個那個具體問題的解決法了。”

    他主張年輕人要把自己的人生,用來解決實際的問題。

    “生命本沒有意義,你要給它什么意義,它就有什么意義。與其終日冥想人生有何意義,不如試用此生做點有意義的事。”

    二、實驗主義 #

    怎么解決實際的問題呢?胡適說,要用實驗的方法,強調證據。

    “大膽的假設,小心的求證。”

    “有幾分證據說幾分話,有七分證據不說八分話。”

    更重要的是,不要迂腐和迷信,要敢于懷疑。

    “讀古人的書,一方面要知道古人聰明到怎樣,一方面也要知道古人傻到怎樣。”

    “世間有一種最流行的迷信,叫做‘服從多數的迷信’。人都以為多數人的公論總是不錯的。”

    “要用自己的頭腦獨立思考,不要輕易受人惑,不要輕易相信別人的理論,哪怕是我胡適說的話。”

    “我這里千言萬語,只是要教人一個不受人惑的方法。我自己決不想牽著誰的鼻子走。我只希望盡我的微薄的能力,教我的少年朋友們學一點防身的本領,努力做一個不受人惑的人。”

    三、自由主義 #

    胡適認為,一個有用的人必須思想自由,而一個強大的國家只可能是由無數自由的個人組成。

    “現在有人對你們說:‘犧牲你們個人的自由,去求國家的自由!‘我對你們說:’爭取個人的自由,就是爭取國家的自由;爭取個人的人格,就是爭取國家的國格!自由平等的國家不是一群奴才建造得起來的!’”

    “把自己鑄造成器,方才可以希望有益于社會。真實的為我,便是最有益的為人。把自己鑄造成了自由獨立的人格,你自然會不知足,不滿意現狀,敢說老實話。”

    “我們所要建立的,是批評國民黨的自由和批評孫中山的自由。上帝我們尚且可以批評,何況國民黨和孫中山?”

    “反自由不容忍。”

    在胡適看來,中國的封建禮教和專制主義,是自由的大敵。

    “中國社會最愛專制,往往用強力摧折個人的個性,壓制個人自由獨立的精神;等到個人的個性都消滅了,等到自由獨立的精神都完了,中國社會自身也沒有生氣了,也不會進步了。”

    “中國的教育,不但不能救亡,簡直可以亡國。”

    “明明是男盜女娼的社會,我們偏說是圣賢禮儀之邦;明明是贓官污吏的政治,我們偏要歌功頌德;明明是不可救藥的大病,我們偏說一點病都沒有!”

    四、人生態度 #

    胡適用自己的行為,積極地實踐上面三個信仰。

    “要怎么收獲,先那么栽。“

    在為人處事上,他包容異己,樂于助人。

    ”我受了十年的罵,從來不怨恨罵我的人。有時他們罵的不中肯,我反替他們著急。有時他們罵得太過火,反而損害罵者自己的人格,我更替他們不安。如果罵我而使罵者有益,便是我間接于他有恩了,我自然很愿挨罵。“

    ”待人時要在有疑處不疑,做學問要在不疑處有疑。“

    胡適的一生,歷經晚清、民國、日本入侵、中共崛起等多個歷史動蕩時期,即使在最黑暗最困難的時候,他也對未來抱有信心,從不放棄和動搖。

    我們要收將來的善果,必須努力種現在的新因。一粒一粒的種,必有滿倉滿屋的收成,這是我們今日應該有的信心。我們要深信:今日的失敗,都由于過去的不努力。我們要深信:今日的努力,必定有將來的大收成。

    佛典里有一句話:“福不唐捐”。唐捐就是白白的丟了。我們也應該說:“功不唐捐!”沒有一點努力是會白白的丟了的。在我們看不見想不到的時候,在我們看不見想不到的方向,你瞧!你下的種子早已生根發葉開花結果了!

    胡適很喜歡引用范仲淹的一句名言。

    “寧鳴而死,不默而生。”

    1962年2月24日,中央研究院召開第五次院士會議。胡適不顧自己剛剛心臟病出院,參加了上午的會議,并且在晚上6點半出席了慶祝酒會。在酒會上,他發表了即席演講。不料講到一半,突然臉色發白,倒在地上。送到醫院后,終因心臟病突發,宣告不治,享年71歲。他用自己的生命實踐了“寧鳴而死”。

    五、胡適墓 #

    離開胡適紀念館,我走出中央研究院的大門,馬路對面就是胡適公園。

    首先映入眼簾的是一排噴水池,后面小山上的白色建筑就是胡適的墓地。拾階而上,就可以看到胡適、江冬秀夫婦的合葬墓。墓穴后面是蔣介石的題字“智德兼隆”。

    墓穴的右面,是胡適大兒子胡祖望的墓(2005年去世),以及二兒子胡思杜的紀念石。(胡思杜1948年從美國留學回國后,沒有選擇去臺灣,而是留在大陸,迎接共產黨。1950年,他在香港《大公報》發表《對我的父親----胡適的批判》,公開表示與胡適劃清界線。1957年反右運動中,他被定為右派,多次批斗后,不堪羞辱,上吊自殺。)

    天色將暮,陰沉悶熱的天空飄起了雨。靜寂的墓園,再無旁人。入土將近50年的胡適先生與他的一位忠實讀者,在這個亞熱帶島嶼的偏僻角落,一起默默地聽著黃昏的雨聲。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:42:01

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