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    蘋果公司與分工原理

    作者: 阮一峰

    日期:2013年3月8日

    我終于讀完了《喬布斯傳》。這是一本好書,我應該早點讀的。

    最大的收獲,就是理解了蘋果公司為什么是現在的樣子。

    蘋果公司與其他計算機公司截然不同,有著鮮明的風格。以前,我只是簡單地認為,它就是這種特色,或者說它的產品策略和銷售方法就是這樣。讀了《喬布斯傳》才明白,這完全是由喬布斯的個性決定的。

    一、喬布斯 #

    1979年,蘋果公司成立不久,喬布斯拍了一張著名的照片。

    他一個人坐在新家的地板上,盤腿沉思。屋里幾乎空無一物,人們都以為,這是為了制造照片效果。但是,《喬布斯傳》披露,他的家真的就是這樣。沒有家俱,是因為喬布斯的要求太高,始終買不到合適的家俱。

    喬布斯買了一間不錯的房子,但家里只有一幅帕黎思(Maxfield Parrish)的畫作、一部百靈牌咖啡機和幾把雙人牌的刀子。他對家俱挑剔到了極點,一直找不到合意的,屋子也就空空如也,沒有床、椅子,也沒有沙發。他的臥室簡單至極:中央有一張床墊,墻上掛了愛因斯坦和印度圣師瑪哈拉的裱框相片,一部蘋果II號計算機就擺在地上。

    喬布斯的個性特點就是追求完美,而且極其堅持。

    二、追求完美 #

    這種個性完全體現在蘋果公司的產品之中。蘋果的產品在各方面都追求完美。 下面就是一些例子。

    (1)最早的時候,蘋果公司只出售硬件(蘋果I號和蘋果II號)。為了不讓其他公司的軟件糟蹋自家的硬件,蘋果很快就開發出了自家的操作系統。

    (2)喬布斯”一想到完美的蘋果軟件在另一家公司出品的破爛電腦上面運行,就渾身不舒服。“所以,蘋果的軟件不授權給其他廠商,甚至也很少推出其他平臺的版本。同樣地,未經許可的軟件,也不得在蘋果的平臺上運行。

    (3)蘋果鼠標只有一個鍵, iPod 只有一個滾輪,iPhone 和 iPad 只有一個Home鍵,因為這樣的設計最完美,如果有兩個鍵就不完美了。

    (4)為了防止用戶破壞蘋果產品的完美,它們都是不能擅自拆開的,Macintosh 電腦不能插入擴展卡,iPhone 和 iPod 不能換電池,還使用了特制的螺絲。

    (5)你不可能讓所有部分都完美,最好的辦法就是去除那些不完美的部分,所以蘋果的產品總是很簡潔。

    (6)由于 Flash 格式可能會出現各種問題,不利于完美的用戶體驗,蘋果宣布不支持 Flash 格式。

    (7)蘋果的產品非常注重細節,因為只要有一個細節出錯,就稱不上完美了。蘋果的設計師曾經抱怨說,喬布斯讓他們花太多時間在標題欄的設計上,害他們無法做更重要的事。喬布斯發火了,叫道:”你們可以想像每天都得盯著這種標題欄的感覺嗎?這不是芝麻蒜皮的事,是應該做好的事。“

    (8)喬布斯甚至要求,電腦內部的電路板也要完美。

    即使電路板藏在電腦里面,看不到,我還是要電路板盡可能漂亮。一個好木工在釘櫥子的時候,會用一塊爛木頭來做背板嗎?盡管背板總是貼著墻壁,沒人看得到,但你還是知道那塊板子就在那里,最后你還是決定用一塊好木板來釘。這樣你才能高枕無憂,因為你已顧及美觀和品質,做到盡善盡美了。

    三、控制一切 #

    喬布斯如此追求完美,所以就希望掌握一切。只要有一個部分不是他說了算,他就難以忍受,感到無法保證這件產品能達到他心目中的完美標準。這就決定了蘋果在業界絕無僅有的經營模式,它幾乎是全世界對產品控制最強悍的公司。

    (1)蘋果只出售硬件和軟件整合為一體的產品,且從不把操作系統授權給其他廠商,以保證一切都在它的完全控制之中。

    (2)為了保證用戶在 iPod 中聽到的是完美的音樂,蘋果搭建了 itunes 音樂商店;為了保證用戶在 iPhone 上用的是合格的軟件,蘋果搭建了 App 商店;為了保證用戶在 iPad 上讀到排版優美的好書,蘋果搭建了 iBooks 書店。一句話,蘋果還要控制內容,只有它審核過的東西,才能進入它的產品。

    (3)由于 Intel 公司的處理器達不到喬布斯的要求,蘋果開始自己生產 A4 處理器,將上游的電子原件都納入自己的控制之中。

    (4)為了保證消費者的購物體驗,蘋果開設了自家的專賣店,以便準確傳達蘋果產品的特質。喬布斯親自參與設計了樓梯、桌子、布局、裝潢等各個方面。蘋果就這樣控制了下游的零售部門。

    喬布斯認為,最好的產品就是“軟件與硬件一體成型的產品”,每個細節都是根據“從頭到尾”(end- to-end)的原則,從制造端(頭)到使用者(尾)全程掌控,去設計打造出來的。他無法想象,把他一手創造出來的東西交給別人,自己無法控制。

    所以,蘋果一家公司包辦了整條產業鏈,從最上游的電子零件到最下游的零售網點,都是它的業務范圍。無論硬件、軟件、還是內容,都在它的控制之中。

    四、分工原理 #

    但是,這樣做違反了經濟學的基本原理----分工。

    1776年,“經濟學之父”英國經濟學家亞當·斯密,在《國富論》中舉過一個經典的例子,證明分工能帶來巨大的經濟利益。

    一根針的制造,涉及18種工序:一個人抽鐵線,一個人拉直,一個人切截,一個人削尖線的一端,一個人磨另一端,以便裝上圓頭……我見過一個小工廠,只雇用10個工人,因此在這個工廠中,有幾個工人同時擔任二三種工序。如果他們勤勉工作,一日能制造12磅的針,以每磅4000枚針計,這10個工人每日就可成針48000枚,即一人一日可成針4800枚。如果他們各自獨立工作,不專門從事一種工序,那么,他們不論是誰,絕對不能一日制造20枚針,說不定一天連一枚針也制造不出來。他們不但不能制出今日由適當分工合作而制成的數量的240分之一,就連這數量的4800分之一,恐怕也制造不出來。

    歷史已經證明了,分工是提高生產力的基本方法,可以大大提高效率、降低成本。

    蘋果公司控制一切的做法,明顯違反分工原理。這注定了它的成本不會低,因此蘋果產品總是比同類產品貴很多。

    五、蘋果的成敗 #

    既然蘋果公司違反了分工原理,為什么它還能獲得成功呢?

    原因就是它的產品比對手的產品領先一大截,往往屬于革命性的產品,引領了潮流。所以,即使價格非常貴,消費者還是愿意購買。從 iMac到 iPod,再到 iPhone 和 iPad,都是如此。

    這就是蘋果的口號“think different”的背后真正含義:只有生產差異化產品,才能彌補高成本。

    但是,蘋果這種違反分工原理的做法,有其內在弱點。一旦蘋果產品無法大幅度領先對手,不能引領潮流,消費者就不會愿意支付高價。那樣的話,蘋果公司就會有麻煩,控制整條產業鏈的巨額成本將無法得到補償。

    這就是目前正在發生的事。自從喬布斯去世后,蘋果公司的新產品(包括 iPad 3和4、iPhone 5、iPad mini)都是很優秀的產品,但不是革命性產品,與其他公司的產品的差距沒有變大,反而正在變小。所以,股價出現了下跌,華爾街擔心消費者越來越不愿意為蘋果產品支付額外的高價。

    蘋果真正需要推出的,不是 iPhone 和 iPad 的改進版,而是像谷歌眼鏡和 Chromebook Pixel 這樣的完全意義上的新產品。

    如果做不到,蘋果就會遭到違反經濟規律的報應,將不得不放棄對上下游的控制,以降低成本,并通過價格戰,保住市場份額。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 07:42:01

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