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    窮忙的人生

    作者: 阮一峰

    1、

    香港曾經有一檔電視真人秀,叫做《窮富翁大作戰》,專門邀請富人體驗窮人的生活。

    有一期節目的主人公是田北辰。他的父親田元灝是香港紡織界的頭面人物,人稱“一代褲王”。他本科畢業于康奈爾大學電子工程專業,又去讀了哈佛大學 MBA,回到香港后創辦了服裝品牌 G2000 和 U2,是那種很努力的“富二代”。

    他崇尚自由競爭和人生奮斗,座右銘是“如果你今天對自己滿意,明天就會被淘汰”,一直宣揚 “如果你有斗志,弱者也可以變成強者。”

    但是,參加了這次電視節目以后,他的觀點發生了180度轉變,對著電視鏡頭公開說:

    “這個社會在極嚴厲地懲罰,那些沒條件讀書的人。窮人一輩子都不可能變有錢人。在強弱懸殊的情況下,只有弱者越弱,越來越慘!”

    2、

    田北辰為什么改變觀點,認為窮人不可能翻身呢?原來,節目組請他體驗了兩天清潔工的生活,薪資是每小時25港幣,每天的生活費只有50港幣,住在只有1.6平方米的“籠屋”,月租1350港幣。

    所謂“籠屋”,外面看著像衣櫥,門一拉開,里面只能放下一張床,關上門四面全挨著木板墻,東西都掛在墻上。就是這種條件,房產中介還稱它為“豪華籠屋”,因為還有600港幣的更低檔,就是在馬桶上放一塊木板睡人。

    上班時間是早上五點,地鐵頭班車還沒開,只能坐夜宵巴士,車費是13港幣,田北辰驚呼:“每天生活費只有50港幣,這怎么坐得起!”

    開始工作后,好不容易熬到中午吃飯,但只有15元的預算,大部分的飯要20元,他最后只能坐在街邊的樓梯上,就著白開水嚼干糧。

    吃完了,還要抓緊時間躺在花壇上休息一會。

    做滿9個小時,就可以下班了。但是,真正的清潔工為了養家戶口,還要去做夜班,一天在外近17個小時,只能睡5、6個小時。田北辰說,因為只有兩天,自己才有斗志堅持下去,如果要做一個月,甚至半年,那就太絕望了!

    “沒有學歷、技術的人,為了活下去,不是住籠屋就是要工作到半夜,對于他們,最重要事情是下一頓吃什么,怎么會有時間和精力去思考未來怎么發展?來來去去都在死胡同!”

    3、

    每天忙于工作,干到累死,但還是很窮,只能租屋住,沒有自己的積蓄,一旦停止工作或者生病在床,生活來源頓時就成問題。田北辰體驗的這種人生,社會學家早就注意到了,起名為“窮忙族”,百度百科的定義如下。

    “窮忙族是指那些薪水不多,整日奔波勞動,卻始終無法擺脫貧窮的人。最早出現于上世紀90年代的美國,指拼命工作仍然無法擺脫最低水準生活的人們。日本經濟學家門倉貴史在《窮忙族》一書中,他對“窮忙族”下的定義是:每天繁忙地工作卻依然不能過上富裕生活的人。”

    不僅香港有“窮忙族”,內地也越來越多。舉例來說,根據報道,2016年上海送外賣最多的送餐員,是一位叫做何文妹的中年女性,至少送出了12214單。即使全年無休,每天平均也要33單,從午飯時間一直送到深夜,一刻不停。電瓶車的電瓶,一天要準備6組。車上插著兩個手機,一個導航,一個接單。

    這種強度的勞動,每年能有多少收入呢?每單的送餐費是8元,這就是說,何文妹一年的送餐總收入在10萬元左右。扣除電瓶費、車輛維護費、通信費等等以后,凈收入大概還能剩下8萬多元。這是“送餐王”的收入水平,大部分送餐員的收入,應該遠不如她,可能只有一半左右。

    上海的底層勞動者,收入基本就是這種水平。他們還要用這些錢支付房租。每天下班回到家,累得就想睡覺,睜開眼就要去上班,日復一日,人生的出路在哪里?

    4、

    將來的“窮忙族”,不僅是低技能的底層勞動者,還將包括很多受過高等教育、寫字樓工作的白領。年輕人如果沒有家庭支持,想要靠自己的努力出人頭地,會變得越來越難。因為單靠工資收入,已經不足以積累財富了。

    有一項統計說:

    “1993年屬于低等收入者的城里人,到了1995年有43%都能向上爬。而相比之下,2011年屬于低等收入者的城里人,到了2013年只有20%摘掉最底層的帽子。一個不恰當的比喻,如果上世紀90年代算是城市窮人的黃金時代的話,那今天這種好日子已經結束了。”

    “一方面,城里窮人越來越難走出貧困;另一方面,城里富人的位置也坐得越來越穩。1993-1995年,城里的高等收入者有64%的概率能一直當富人。而到了2011-2013年,高等收入者竟然有84%的概率能保證自己不被從富人列表中除名。”

    上面的數字就是說,如果你是窮人,80%的概率以后你還是窮人;如果你是富人,84%的概率是以后你還是富人。一個臺灣人感嘆說:

    ”那種奴隸化的生活(長時間工作,卻僅能勉強滿足溫飽)才是歷史的常態。過去三十年社會階層的大幅流動,是歷史的不正常,現在開始回歸常態。99%的我們,都面臨著這種大趨勢的吞噬:你的工資不變,但房價和物價卻是越來越高,于是你必需花更多時間來掙錢,甚至一天做二份工,最后成為沒有自己時間的奴隸。”

    總的來看,下一代青年不太可能有上一代那么多機會。經濟增長率已經開始放緩,還將繼續放緩,人口增長高峰已經過去,老齡化越來越嚴重,老人的消費遠不及年輕人。礦業、制造業、零售業、證券業……除了高科技,幾乎所有行業都不會有以前那么高的增長率。上一代人趕上了中國經濟起飛,還擁有依靠房地產翻身的機會,但是下一代人不會再有這樣的機會。你現在買入一套房子,十年后價值翻上十倍,完全是零可能。

    越來越多的人將會發現,即使從小就努力學習,從很好的學校畢業,后來努力工作,但迎接他們的將是“長久的低薪、難升遷的職場、高昂的物價、買不起的房子……”。盡管你很努力,待人友善,有公德心,但就是掙不到錢,只能在社會的底層掙扎。

    5、

    2015年,社會工作者藤田孝典調查日本的老人問題。

    發現,很多老人年輕時都拿過中產階級的薪水(400萬日元),但是現在已經淪落到社會的底層,過著非常困苦的生活。“七老八十還要在大熱天當廉價勞工,因經濟拮據而妻離子散,唯有獨居爛屋,孤零零度過晚年。”

    藤田孝典將這些老人稱為“下流老人”(底層老人)。他稱,日本的下流老人以后可能會達到1億人。要知道,日本現在的總人口也只有1.27億。

    下流老人有三大特征。(1)收入極低,即使政府提供補助費,也難以維持健康飲食,以及一般家庭應有的生活;(2)存款不足,老人必須提心吊膽地過活,一旦碰到突發事故或慢性病,日常已經捉襟見肘的生活,就會面臨崩潰危險;(3)老無所依,子女連自己都養不起,更遑論贍養老人。日本不少老人因家庭破碎而長期獨居,平日缺乏與親朋鄰里的交流,關系疏離,一旦發生意外無人照應。在晚年失去可以依靠的人,是下流老人最悲苦的特征。

    下流老人的根源就是,錢花光了,人還沒死。日本媒體還發明了一個詞“老后破產”,這就是長壽的惡夢。

    現代科技如此發達,人的壽命越來越長,可是工作又積累不了財富,于是,“清貧青年,流沙中年,下流老人”就成了大多數人必然的命運歸宿。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 08:15:49

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