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    微媒體時代

    作者: 阮一峰

    直播是2016年最火爆的互聯網熱點之一,各大網絡公司紛紛推出自己的直播平臺。從最早的游戲直播、歌舞直播,發展到現在的包羅萬象。你只要打開手機攝像頭,就可以隨時隨地直播,逛街直播、聚餐直播、燒菜直播等都出現了。

    直播實際上已經變成了一種大眾娛樂。2016年9月,新聞出版廣電總局發了《關于加強網絡視聽節目直播服務管理有關問題的通知》,其中有這樣一條。

    “未經批準,任何機構和個人不得在互聯網上使用‘電視臺’、‘廣播電臺’、‘電臺’、‘TV’等廣播電視專有名稱開展業務。”

    這就是說,直播的時候,你不能把自己稱為電視臺。這條規定不禁讓我想到了一個問題,因為絕大多數直播都是一個人在搞,那么有沒有可能,一個人就能辦一個電視臺呢?

    傳統的電視臺,一個人肯定辦不起來。三個最基本的崗位——采訪、編輯、播出——一個人是搞不定的。我國最基層的縣級電視臺,哪怕消息都靠通訊員,也往往有幾十人的編制。

    互聯網不一樣:播出不用操心,只要攝像頭對準自己就可以;節目內容就是直播主題加上旁白(歌舞類直播還要唱歌跳舞);提前做一些準備,當然最好,沒有任何準備,想到哪里說到哪里,問題也不大。所以,互聯網直播完全可以一個人包辦。事實上,很多人已經把直播當職業了,每天晚上都開臺,從晚飯后一直直播到半夜,靠粉絲打賞來賺錢。這種情況下,就等于一個人做了一個頻道,不僅采、編、播集于一身,還集成了廣告部門。從功能上來講,一個互聯網直播間就是一個微型的網絡電視臺了。

    《長江日報》曾經報道過武漢一個網絡主播的生活。

    “譚潔一周5天,從14時到16時直播。一個自拍竿,一部手機,一個充電器,每天譚潔拿著手機在武漢三鎮到處逛,直播自己吃飯、坐公交、買衣服、逛街等日常生活以及所見所想。記者在江漢路中心百貨的麥當勞見到了譚潔,當時直播平臺上有3萬多人正在線看她。……譚潔粉絲多,除了6000元的底薪,加上“禮物提成”,一個月能拿2萬左右。”

    美國有一部電影《楚門的世界》,講的是主人公楚門生活在一個巨大的攝影棚里面,每天24小時的生活都被制作成肥皂劇,向全世界播出。上文的那位譚潔姑娘,已經把這段情節變成了活生生的現實。不同的是,楚門的背后是一個上百人的團隊,而譚潔只有一個人。

    如果每個人都是一個微型媒體,就像無數座移動的小電視臺,每時每刻向外界發送著信號,那么媒體的生態就完全不一樣了。

    以前是大媒體時代,一個城市只有幾家媒體,所有人從這些媒體獲取消息。現在是微媒體時代,周圍到處是形形色色的媒體。你不僅消費別人提供的消息,自己也在源源不斷地“播放”消息。用計算機術語來說,以前的媒體生態是“中央集中式”,現在是“網狀分布式”,媒體分子化了。

    這種媒體生態的根本性變化,意味著什么呢?

    首先,傳統的大媒體公司將會遭遇生存危機。遍地開花的微媒體,使得人們不再那么需要那些大媒體公司了。許多傳統媒體會死去,那些最優秀的媒體還會繼續生存下去,因為它們是公認的可靠消息來源。

    微媒體會變得比大媒體更受歡迎,其中一些會走上商業化運營的道路,最終變成大型媒體公司。對于用戶來說,收看大媒體的節目與收看微媒體的節目,并無差異,兩者的地位是平等的。大媒體將被迫與微媒體在同一條起跑線上競爭,這對于微媒體是巨大的機會。不管你是誰,都有機會成名15分鐘。那些大媒體的廣告客戶,完全可能變成你的廣告客戶。

    其次,媒體的節目導向將發生變化。總體上,大媒體的節目雖然制作更精良,但是成本較高(用戶不得不看廣告),有更多商業化的成分,它們的目標是生產出來的內容,給盡可能多的人看。

    微媒體不一樣,它根本不是商業驅動的,而是以興趣和自我展示為主要訴求。你收看微媒體,其實就是在收看主播的個性和想法。所以,微媒體興起后,媒體的視角將由宏觀(社會、經濟、政治、歷史等等)轉向更微觀、更自我。

    再次,以后不會再有超大型的媒體公司,只會有超大型的媒體平臺。這已經是互聯網時代的普遍趨勢了:世界最大出租車公司 Uber 不擁有任何出租車,最大內容提供商 Facebook 不生產任何內容,最大網商阿里巴巴不擁有任何商店,最大旅館 Airbnb 不擁有任何房間。同樣的,未來最大的媒體將不生產任何內容,只提供內容的消費和交易的平臺,現在的 Youtube 已經初具這樣的雛形了。

    最后,媒體會變得極度廉價化,以前是每個人都擁有個人主頁(Facebook、微信、微博都是個人主頁平臺),將來是每個人都有一個媒體。微媒體為個人帶來了極大機會,讓你把自己傳播出去。以前,人們盼著上電視,讓別人知道自己是誰;將來你的個人媒體上,你永遠都是主角。問題是如何吸引別人來看,媒體推廣將成為每個人的必修課。微媒體的時代,你必須學會如何把自己傳播出去。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 08:15:49

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