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    高級人類的崛起

    作者: 阮一峰

    1、

    除了人工智能,2016年還有一項技術取得了重大突破,對人類的影響可能更大。

    這就是基因編輯技術 CRISPR/Cas9

    2016年4月,《自然》雜志發表論文,宣布發現了史上最簡單方便的編輯基因的方法。

    2016年9月,德國科學家使用該技術修補癌癥基因,真正意義上做到預防某些癌癥。

    2016年10月,成都市華西醫科大學開展世界首例人體臨床試驗,將經過基因編輯的細胞,注射到一名肺癌病人體內,該病人已到癌癥末期,其他療法都無效了。

    基因編輯技術 CRISPR 可以修剪 DNA、替換或修改基因,精確度極高,相比以前的方法,效率大幅提高,成本則大幅降低。現在能做到,像編輯照片像素那樣編輯基因。很多人認為,這是近十年來,生物學界最大的科研成果。

    2、

    為了理解這項技術帶給人類的深遠影響,我先簡單介紹一下什么是基因。

    生物細胞里面都有染色體。一個染色體就是一個 DNA 分子,包含了遺傳信息。你是老鼠還是人,完全由 DNA 決定。如果有一種技術,可以把老鼠的 DNA 換成人的 DNA,老鼠就可以變成人了。幸好沒有這種技術。

    你可能會問,既然 DNA 決定了人和老鼠的差異,那么人與人的差異是什么決定的呢?

    答案是基因。基因是 DNA 片斷,決定了一個人的各種生理特征。你的身高、長相、血型、是不是色盲或左撇子,會不會早老性癡呆,都由基因決定。人的 DNA 大約包含5到10萬個基因。

    自己無法選擇基因,那是先天決定的,大部分遺傳自父母,還有一小部分來自基因突變。基因并不總是好的,有些基因會導致先天性生理缺陷,或者遺傳病。

    3、

    CRISPR 技術使得人類可以改變基因了,這里擦掉一點,那里加上一筆,讓生物更符合人類的需要。下面是一些已知的案例。

    美國科學家培育出一種不長角的奶牛,產奶性能優良,但是不長牛角,因此不會傷人。

    哈佛大學正在計劃從冰凍的猛犸遺體提取基因,與亞洲象的胚胎基因拼接,培養出一只有猛犸特征的大象。據說兩三年內就能實現,復活恐龍也不再遙遠。

    還有一個計劃,要改造雄蚊子的基因,使其失去繁育能力,相當于把它閹了,從而可能使得蚊子滅絕。

    上面這些例子都是“轉基因動物”,但是大家心里都清楚,這項技術的主要用途是“轉基因人”。

    美國影星安吉麗娜·朱莉,因為家族遺傳,攜帶乳腺癌基因,母親就死于這種癌癥。她沒辦法,只能在38歲時切除了整個乳腺。如果有了基因編輯技術,在胚胎時期刪掉致病基因,就沒有這個問題了。

    艾滋病也是如此,如果刪除了艾滋病基因,人類就有可能擺脫艾滋病的威脅。

    2017年2月15日,美國國家科學院發表報告:“應該允許科學家修改人類胚胎,以消除鐮狀細胞性貧血等毀滅性遺傳疾病”。

    2017年7月,第一例經過基因編輯的人類胚胎,已經在美國實驗室完成了。

    4、

    問題是除了“治療性編輯”,還有“增強性編輯”(改造基因讓人類變得更完美):肥胖基因、脫發基因、近視眼基因,這些都可以刪除。那些跟感知能力相關的基因,則可以增強,讓視力和聽覺變得更敏銳,記憶力變得更好。

    科學界的主流意見是禁止增強性編輯,反對人為創造出一個更優秀的人種。但是這種反對恐怕難以如愿,如果可以讓人變得更好,為什么不做呢?活得更長、老得更慢、病得更少,是人類長久以來的夢想,現在終于有辦法實現了,為什么要禁止呢!何況有時也很難分清治療性編輯和增強性編輯:減少中年男子的脫發,到底是治療還是增強,或者兩者兼有?

    就算通過法律,禁止增強性編輯,其實也禁不了。A 國禁止了。可以到 B 國做手術。即使全世界都禁止了,只要能賺錢,也會有瘋狂科學家在地下室里做。

    增強性編輯的真正問題在于,如果一些人轉了基因,另一些人沒轉,前者就會比后者多了競爭優勢。

    5、

    越早編輯基因,效果越好。先天性的基因缺陷,應該在胚胎或受精卵時期,就接受基因編輯。人類的胚胎將來一定會進行“基因優化”,沒人想生下有缺陷的孩子,或者競爭力不如人的孩子。

    問題就出在這里,不是每個人都有錢進行基因編輯。大部分人負擔不起這筆費用,至少目前是這樣。只有那些有錢人才能進行基因編輯。

    請想象這樣一樣情況:上層社會的人們利用基因編輯技術,創造自己的生理優勢,刪除生理劣勢。從胚胎開始,他們就擁有更好的基因,智力更發達、容貌更俊美,體格更健康,再加上后天的悉心培養,良好的營養和教育投入,以及家族在事業上的幫助,很容易就能取得人生成功,控制社會資源,普通人將難以與他們競爭。

    他們會形成自己的圈子和階層。最終,社會分裂成兩種人:一種是普通人(基因沒有優化過),另一種是高級人類(基因經過優化)。前者智力平平,長相平庸,體格矮小,無論在形體還是能力上,都比后者遜色。

    6、

    古代的貴族只是在地位、權力、財富上優于其他人,生理上并無不同。資產階級革命提出人類生而平等的口號,但是這種假設現在不成立了。富裕階層已經有能力編輯基因,在體能和智能上優于其他人,

    一旦人與人在生理上不平等,那么社會就將大變。這跟以前政治經濟的不平等,有著本質的區別。人類將是歷史上第一種生物,能夠自己在內部創造出生物學意義上更高等的種類。可以想象,經過幾代人的基因編輯的累積,底層的人們將全面落后于上層社會,毫無翻身的希望,等待他們的又會是什么命運呢?

    有一點是肯定的,那就是上層社會還會進一步分化,其中相對沒錢的那部分人,慢慢會變成新的下等階層。最終,整個社會的金字塔頂端,只有很少的一部分人,他們有著最完美的、編輯得無可挑剔的基因。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 08:15:49

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