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    熵:宇宙的終極規則

    作者: 阮一峰

    1、

    有人曾經問我:“成年后,有沒有書籍改變過你的世界觀?”

    我想了想,還真有這樣的書。那時,我已經工作好幾年了,偶然在圖書館翻到一本舊書《熵:一種新的世界觀》(上海譯文出版社,1987)。

    那本書是科普著作,介紹物理學概念“熵”。中學畢業后,我再沒有碰過物理學,但是沒想到讀完以后,我看待世界的眼光都變了。

    “熵”這個概念非常簡單,很容易理解,但又異常強大,可以解釋很多事情。這篇文章,我就來談談,為什么你應該懂得熵是什么,它可能也會改變你的世界觀。

    2、

    為了理解熵,必須講一點物理學。

    19世紀,物理學家開始認識到,世界的動力是能量,并且提出“能量守恒定律”,即能量的總和是不變的。但是,有一個現象讓他們很困惑。

    (上圖的單擺,在兩側的最高點,勢能最大,動能為零;在中間的低點,動能最大,勢能為零,能量始終守恒。)

    物理學家發現,能量無法百分百地轉換。比如,蒸汽機使用的是熱能,將其轉換為推動機器的機械能。這個過程中,總是有一些熱能損耗掉,無法完全轉變為機械能。

    一開始,物理學家以為是技術水平不高導致的,但后來發現,技術再進步,也無法將能量損耗降到零。他們就將那些在能量轉換過程中浪費掉的、無法再利用的能量稱為熵。

    后來,這個概念被總結成了“熱力學第二定律”:能量轉換總是會產生熵,如果是封閉系統,所有能量最終都會變成熵。

    3、

    熵既然是能量,為什么無法利用?它又是怎么產生的?為什么所有能量最后都會變成熵?這些問題我想了很久。

    物理學家有很多種解釋,有一種我覺得最容易懂:能量轉換的時候,大部分能量會轉換成預先設定的狀態,比如熱能變成機械能、電能變成光能。但是,就像細胞突變那樣,還有一部分能量會生成新的狀態。這部分能量就是熵,由于狀態不同,所以很難利用,除非外部注入新的能量,專門處理熵。

    (上圖,能量轉換過程中,創造出許多新狀態。)

    總之,能量轉換會創造出新的狀態,熵就是進入這些狀態的能量。

    4、

    現在請大家思考:狀態多意味著什么?

    狀態多,就是可能性多,表示比較混亂;狀態少,就是可能性少,相對來說就比較有秩序。因此,上面結論的另一種表達是:能量轉換會讓系統的混亂度增加,熵就是系統的混亂度。

    (上圖中,熵低則混亂度低,熵高則混亂度高。)

    轉換的能量越大,創造出來的新狀態就會越多。高能量系統不如低能量系統穩定,不僅因為前者更容易發生能量轉換,還因為在轉化過程中會創造出更多的狀態(即更多的熵)。而且,凡是運動的系統都會有能量轉換,熱力學第二定律就是在說,所有封閉系統最終都會趨向混亂度最大的狀態,除非外部注入能量。

    (上圖中,冰塊是分子的有序排列,吸收能量后,變成液體水,分子排列變得無序。)

    5、

    熵讓我理解了一件事,如果不施加外力影響,事物永遠向著更混亂的狀態發展。比如,房間如果沒人打掃,只會越來越亂,不可能越來越干凈。

    (上圖中,如果不花費能量打掃,房間總是越來越亂。)

    為什么“世間好物不堅牢,彩云易散琉璃脆”?就是因為事物維持美好的狀態是需要能量的,如果沒有能量輸入,美好的狀態就會結束。

    這就是我世界觀的變化。我從此認識到,人類社會并非一定會變得更進步、更文明。相反地,人類如同宇宙的其他事物一樣,常態和最終命運一定是變得更混亂和無序。過去五千年,人類文明的進步只是因為人類學會利用外部能量(牲畜、火種、水力等等)。越來越多的能量注入,使得人類社會向著文明有序的方向發展。

    從小,我受到的教育是“明天會更好”。現在我明白了,這句話是有條件的。正常情況下,明天其實會更糟,因為熵在累積,只有不斷注入新的能量處理熵,明天才會更好。

    (上圖中,經過130多億年的膨脹,宇宙變得越來越無序了。)

    6、

    工業革命以后,人類社會的進步速度加快了,變得更加先進有序,消耗的能量也指數級地增長:水力不夠了用煤炭,煤炭不夠了用石油,石油不夠了用核能。

    能量消耗越大,就會產生越多的熵。因此,人類社會始終處于一種矛盾狀態:整個社會變得更加有序和嚴密的同時,無序和混亂也在暗處不斷滋長。

    我們只是依靠更大的能量輸入,在壓制熵的累積。不斷增加的熵,正在各種方面爆發出來:垃圾污染、地球變暖、土地沙化、PM2.5、物種滅絕……甚至心理疾病、孤獨感和疏離感的暴增,我認為都是熵的增加對人類精神造成的結果。

    我們需要能量,讓世界變得有秩序,但這樣是有代價的。物理學告訴我們,沒有辦法消除熵和混亂,我們只是讓某些局部變得更有秩序,把混亂轉移到另一些領域。

    7、

    人類社會正在加速發展。表面上,我們正在經歷一個減熵過程,一切變得越來越有秩序,自動化帶來了便捷。但是,能量消耗也在同步放大,為了解決越來越多的熵,我們不得不尋找更多的能量,這又導致熵的進一步增加,從而陷入惡性循環。

    迄今為止,人類一直能夠找到足夠的能量,解決熵帶來的混亂。但是,這種解決方式正變得捉襟見肘。如果我們繼續像現在這樣加速發展,那么終有一天會出現能量缺口,地球上的能量不足以解決熵,那時一切就會發生逆轉,仿佛細小的裂縫演變成巨大的雪崩,秩序開始崩塌,世界走向混亂。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 08:15:49

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