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    為什么雇傭制度對工人不利?

    作者: 阮一峰

    1、

    當代社會的基礎,就是雇傭制度。老板雇傭工人,組織生產。

    這種模式極大地提高了生產力,還成為社會的默認形態。今天,有人問你干什么工作,其實就是在問,誰雇傭了你?人們已經默認,工作就是雇傭,雇傭就是工作。

    很難想象,如果沒有雇傭制度,我們這個社會怎么運行?

    2、

    現在的人們把每天去公司上班,視為天經地義的事情。許多人的心目中,人生只有一種模式:找到一家愿意雇傭你的公司,一直工作到退休,如果中途離職,那就再找下一家公司上班。

    但是,這種生活模式其實只有兩三百年歷史。人類歷史的絕大部分時間,人類都沒有上下班和雇傭的概念。歷史上(奴隸社會除外),只有兩種勞動者:農民和手工業者。他們都是自己負責生產,不是別人的雇員。

    我們不應該把現在的雇傭制度,視為理所當然。它不是人類社會運行的唯一模式,過去不是,將來也未必是。

    3、

    雇傭制度是一種有傾向性的制度:對資方有利,對勞方不利。

    資方和勞方的利益是對立的:工人少拿一點,老板就多賺一點。這一點并沒有問題,利益分配總是這樣。

    雇傭制度的真正問題是勞資雙方的地位不平等,做出決策的總是資方,勞方只有被動接受資方決策的命。也就是說,老板說什么,你就必須做什么,這才是問題。考慮到老板可以從你的損失中獲利,就更顯出這個制度的缺陷了。

    舉例來說,今年公司賺了100萬,那么工人可以獲利多少?回答是不確定,看老板心情。他想多分你一點,你就可以多拿錢;他一毛不拔,你也拿他沒辦法,而且你也清楚,這樣對他有利。公司賺多少錢,其實對你不重要的,重要的是老板的分配決策。

    反過來說,今年公司虧了100萬,老板的決策就更簡單了,就是把你解雇,省下你的工資支出。我們經常可以看到,某家公司宣布解雇員工以后,股價反而上漲了,因為市場認為這樣有利于公司的發展。你失業了很痛苦,但是股東高興了,因為他們的股票更值錢了。

    總之,雇傭制度——乃至總體的當代社會制度——都偏向資方。對勞方來說,在這種制度下,人生完全是被動的:不能充分地享受利益,反而會完全地承擔成本。甚至還常常承擔超出自己份額的成本,就像富人經常把應該他們承擔的社會成本,轉嫁到窮人身上那樣。

    4、

    雇傭制度還有一個嚴重的問題,就是對工人的身心健康很不利。

    幾十年如一日的上下班生活,非常容易讓人產生心理和生理的疲勞感。工業革命后,人類的心理疾病呈現爆炸式的增長,這跟雇傭制度的興起有著密不可分的關系。

    越是大公司,越容易讓人產生疲勞感。對于基層員工來說,大公司的工作是非常無聊和讓人厭倦的。

    5、

    工作的乏味和令人厭倦,其實是公司的一種制度設計。只有這樣,才能保證公司的利益。

    首先,一個優秀能干的員工能給公司帶來很大的利益。但是,凡事都有雙面性。現在這個社會,人才流動很快。能力強的、聰明的人,雖說給公司帶來不少利益,但是做幾年就遠走高飛的情況非常多。他們的離開就會給公司造成了很大的缺口,很多地方都要好久才能補上,公司的元氣大傷。

    公司發現,他們不能太依賴人才,而應該讓人才依賴公司。管理層的最終作用,就是讓誰離開了都無所謂,公司都能正常運作。所以,大公司把各個部門劃分得很細很細,每個人負責的東西很單一。這樣一來,每個員工“術業有專攻”,效率上去了,經驗積累了,而且公司的運作就會流程化。

    一旦流程化,員工的工作就變得很單調了,沒有太多的創造性在里面。什么創意、可靠性、穩定性等等,都有專人做了,你就只需要按照手冊,做好你那一份事情就可以了。最后,對公司來說,就是誰離開了都不重要了。規模越大的公司,往往分工越細,對人才的要求就越低,反倒是小公司需要多面手。

    工作流程化以后,如果每天都在同一個地方,做著同樣的事情,日復一日,就算沒有病,也會被活生生逼出病來。富士康的工人跳樓,大概就是這個原因。

    6、

    可悲的是,站在工人的角度,你根本無力擺脫這個制度。你知道這個制度對你不利,但你還是必須求著別人雇傭你,有工作以后,還要提心吊膽,擔心會不會失業。不這樣,你就沒法賺到錢養活自己。

    市場上有很多書籍,教你怎么在雇傭制度下生存下來(比如《職場xxx秘籍》)。但是,我的這本書不是,我更多思考的是,怎樣離開這個制度,還能夠活得下去。

    不過,不是每個人都有能力,離開這個制度的。而且,在這個制度中,還是有可能成功的,進而順利地畢業,從勞方搖身一變成為資方。因此,建議是如果你在大公司工作,就一定要有個明確的職業發展方向,不要以為進大公司就前途一片光明。如果在大公司里面,想要技術上有造詣,工作經驗的積累只是一方面,真正的突破要靠自己業余深造!不然,路就會越走越窄,公司遲早會讓你來承擔成本,通過擺脫你來降低成本。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 08:15:49

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