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    45歲以后的人生

    作者: 阮一峰

    1、

    2017年初,網上傳言華為公司正在清理34歲以上的員工。

    “中國區開始集中清理34+的交付員工,……去向是跟海外服務部門交換今年新畢業的校招員工,也就是進新人,出舊人。

    這些舊人目測要被輸出去海外,實際上就是變相裁員,這些30多歲的老桿子,英語又不好,拖家帶口,能出去海外安心奮斗的沒幾個,即使出去了幸存的也不多。”

    華為公司否認該傳言。但是,不久以后又有傳言稱,45歲必須退休。

    “為保持公司年輕化,退休政策即將微調,從“45歲可以退休”改變為“45歲須退休”,想繼續工作的,需人力資源部重新審批。”

    一時間,網上議論紛紛:34歲清理一批,45歲強制離職,這是什么樣的人事政策啊!

    2、

    我不討論這個消息的真假,因為我也不知道。我只指出一個事實:IT 行業是一個年輕人的行業。

    隨便哪一家 IT 公司,你去參觀,主要員工都是年輕人,40歲以上的很少見,高管往往也是20幾歲的年輕人。長久以來,一直有人:“40歲以上的程序員都去哪里了?”

    老員工在這個行業是稀有動物,從35歲開始,數量急劇減少,年齡越大越稀有。網上的傳言只是從一個側面,驗證了大家的這種感覺。

    3、

    為什么 IT 公司都是年輕人的天下?我認為主要原因有兩個。

    首先,工作強度太大了。IT 公司的加班是家常便飯,業務越忙、加班時間越長。很多團隊都采用“996”工作制:早上9點上班,晚上9點下班,每周六天。杭州有一家全世界最著名的電子商務公司,天天半夜12點,辦公樓燈火通明,門口等著接生意的出租車排成一長隊。有一項統計《2016年 IT 公司加班時間排行榜》,華為排在第一位,平均每個工作日加班3.96小時,第二位是騰訊,加班3.92小時。

    人的生理和智能的最高峰是20歲~30歲這個年齡段。過了30歲,身體就慢慢走下坡路了,思維也不如以前活躍了。年輕的時候,長年累月的加班或許還可以承受,等進入中年,再這樣拼,你的身體吃得消嗎?加班好比折舊,加班越兇,折舊越快。我見過很多程序員剛過30歲,但看上去好像40歲,長期的缺乏運動和工作壓力,使得他們的身體有著各種疾病,實際上已經不能承擔高強度的工作,或者 deadline(截止期)的趕工壓力了。

    另一方面,即使你可以咬緊牙關撐下去,家里人答應嗎?父母和妻兒天天看不到你,她們能受得了?萬一父母住院,或者小孩在幼兒園被其他同學打了,你能不聞不問,繼續全部心思撲在工作上?

    4、

    IT 公司缺少老員工的第二個原因是,這個行業變化太快了,老員工沒優勢。

    老員工的優勢是經驗和人脈,可是在 IT 行業,這兩樣東西都不是特別重要,新事物層出不窮,舊事物沒多久就無人問津。最近的行業熱點:共享單車、直播、VR、區塊鏈、O2O……都是新事物,史無前例,大家都沒經驗。誰占領了市場,誰就成了標準。而且,新事物的市場往往主要是青年,他們接受新事物的程度最快最高,用“90后”去設計產品、打開市場,可能比使用“70后”有效得多。

    這個行業里面,起決定性作用的是新技術。技術進步的速度,比市場的變化還快,每年都有大量新技術出來。你22歲大學畢業入職,等到10年過去了,32歲時你大學里面學到的東西都沒用了,你必須和新人一樣從頭開始學習新技術。你也許會說,怎么可能都沒用呢,難道微積分、統計學、編程原理這些都沒用了嗎?問題是新人也學過這些啊,而且他們剛剛學,不像你已經忘得差不多了。

    5、

    企業發現,新人可以全身心投入工作,連續加班,可塑性高,又比較聽話,不像老員工,資格太老而變得油滑,一有不滿就公開抱怨,或者上班時間經常到吸煙區吞云吐霧。

    更糟糕的是,老員工的工資比新員工高得多。如果老員工沒有能力優勢,反而拿著比新人高幾倍的工資,對企業來說,應該怎么做,就不言自明了。

    中國的 IT 企業里面,第一線員工干到34歲時,大概已經拼搏了10年以上,再拼命有點力不從心了。對企業來說,該員工最能創造價值的巔峰也已經過去了。等他到了45歲,如果還沒有當上高管,很可能已經創造不了價值了,再留著他反而可能有負作用,讓企業變成松松跨跨的養老院。

    這就是為什么大家覺得傳言可信,因為符合邏輯。如果員工都是奮斗者,你說誰更容易有奮斗精神,25歲還是45歲?

    好在 IT 行業的工資現在還是不錯的,即使45歲退休了,生活水平也不會一時下降太多。如果能夠拿到公司的股票,而公司又非常成功,那么可能不用等到45歲,你自己早早就走了,享受生活不再為人打工了。

    馬云在湖畔大學對企業家上課,第一課就說: “小公司的成敗在于你聘請什么樣的人,大公司的成敗在于你開除什么樣的人。大公司里有很多老白兔,不干活,并且慢慢會傳染更多的人。”可見最成功的企業家早就認可這種做法。

    6、

    我估計,34歲之前晉升到中級,45歲之前晉升到高管,否則強制退休,會成為 IT 行業的慣例。隨著其他行業正在日益變成“互聯網 +”,這種做法還有向其他行業擴展的可能。

    這就提出了一個很嚴峻的問題。如果你沒有在期限之前晉升到中級或高管,那么到45歲就沒工作了,你該怎么辦?45歲還是一個很有活力的年齡,就這樣退休,對社會是人力資源浪費,對個人也很殘酷。可是,那時你找得到工作嗎?或者即使找到工作,你還能拿到原來崗位的那種報酬嗎?

    現實是非常殘酷的。一個名叫“藍血研究”的公號里面,貼出過一篇據說是內部員工的文章。首先,作者表示理解公司的做法。

    “年齡大,股票多的員工消耗了華為大量的成本,公司要清理這樣的員工為年輕世代釋放出更大的空間,這是極其合理的事情。而且大部分的老員工基本已經財務自由,就算沒有完全自由,保留的股票也基本可以衣食無憂。”

    但是,現實情況卻是“強制退休或者不續約的,都不是年齡大和股票多的高成本員工,反而是在華為兢兢業業十來年,考評普通職級一般,收入和股票都偏低的那一群人”。

    作者認為很多高職級的管理者更應該被裁掉。

    “高管真的是那么不可或缺嗎?我真心不覺得是這樣,很多情況下恰恰相反。當前很多高管其實離業務很遠,讓他們去做一件基層員工的事情,他們反而是做不了的,自己也沒有做什么高大上的戰略性的事情,每天就是開會開會開會,分配任務。大部分都貌似很忙,每天都開會到很晚,但是真的對業務有多大幫助呢?大家心里都有一桿秤!一邊是我們的基層大齡扎實貢獻的員工被裁被退休,一邊是管理者的崗位職級嗖地往上漲,公平何在?公理何在?”

    “一個19級的管理者的年收入大概是他所管理的15級員工的5倍,但是19級的貢獻度真的是15級的5倍嗎?以現在的體制,把15級的人扔到19級的崗位上,該部門會出大亂子嗎?業務就會因此出現毀滅性打擊嗎?還是說15級經過幾個月適應,竟然也能干19級的崗位。到底是誰 overpay, 到底是誰應該被退休?”

    7、

    我覺得,每個人都應該想一想,你的雇主如果沒有你,是不是就會有重大損失?一個新人或更基層的員工接手你的崗位,他/她能不能上手,而他們要求的報酬又會是多少?

    技術的進步讓人類活得更長更健康,但也讓我們變得不那么有用了。將來也許每個人都要選擇兩次自己的人生:一次是大學畢業找工作時,另一次是45歲沒有工作時。

    最后生成于 2018-7-9 08:15:49

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